- Caddoes, Gallatin in Trans. and Coll. Am. Antiq. Soc., II,
116, 306, 1836 (based on Caddoes alone). Prichard, Phys. Hist.
Mankind, V, 406, 1847. Gallatin in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes,
III, 402, 1858 [gives as languages Caddo, Red River, (Nandakoes,
- Caddokies, Gallatin in Trans. and Coll. Am. Antiq. Soc., II,
116, 1836 (same as his Caddoes). Prichard, Phys. Hist. Mankind,
V, 406, 1847.
- Caddo, Latham in Trans. Philolog. Soc. Lond., II, 31-50,
1846 (indicates affinities with Iroquois, Muskoge, Catawba,
Pawnee). Gallatin in Trans. Am. Eth. Soc., II, pt. 1, xcix, 77,
1848, (Caddo only). Berghaus (1845), Physik. Atlas, map 17, 1848
(Caddos, etc.). Ibid., 1852. Latham, Nat. Hist. Man, 338, 1850
(between the Mississippi and Sabine). Latham in Trans. Philolog.
Soc., Lond., 101, 1856. Turner in Pac. R. R. Rep., III, pt. 3,
55, 70, 1856 (finds resemblances to Pawnee but keeps them
separate). Buschmann, Spuren der aztek. Sprache, 426, 448, 1859.
Latham, Opuscula, 290, 366, 1860.
- Caddo, Latham, Elements Comp. Phil., 470, 1862 (includes
Pawni and Riccari).
- Pawnees, Gallatin in Trans. and Coll. Am. Antiq. Soc., II,
128, 306, 1836 (two nations: Pawnees proper and Ricaras or Black
Pawnees). Prichard, Phys. Hist. Mankind, V, 408, 1847 (follows
Gallatin). Gallatin in Trans. Am. Eth. Soc., 59 II, pt. 1, xcix,
1848. Latham, Nat. Hist. Man, 344, 1850 (or Panis; includes Loup
and Republican Pawnees). Gallatin in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes,
III, 402, 1853 (gives as languages: Pawnees, Ricaras, Tawakeroes,
Towekas, Wachos?). Hayden, Cont. Eth. and Phil. Missouri
Indians, 232, 345, 1863 (includes Pawnees and Arikaras).
- Panis, Gallatin in Trans. and Coll. Am. Antiq. Soc., II,
117, 128, 1836 (of Red River of Texas; mention of villages;
doubtfully indicated as of Pawnee family). Prichard, Phys. Hist.
Mankind, V, 407, 1847 (supposed from name to be of same race
with Pawnees of the Arkansa). Latham, Nat. Hist. Man, 344, 1850
(Pawnees or). Gallatin in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, III, 403,
1853 (here kept separate from Pawnee family).
- Pawnies, Gallatin in Trans. Am. Eth. Soc., II, pt. 1, 77,
1848 (see Pawnee above).
- Pahnies, Berghaus (1845), Physik. Atlas, map 17, 1848.
- Pawnee(?), Turner in Pac. R. R. Rep., III, pt. 3, 55, 65,
1856 (Kichai and Hueco vocabularies).
- Pawnee, Keane, App. to Stanford’s Comp. (Cent. and So. Am.),
478, 1878 (gives four groups, viz: Pawnees proper; Arickarees;
- Pani, Gatschet, Creek Mig. Legend, I, 42, 1884. Berghaus,
Physik. Atlas, map 72, 1887.
- Towiaches. Gallatin in Trans. and Coll. Am. Antiq. Soc., II,
116, 128, 1836 (same as Panis above). Prichard, Phys. Hist.
Mankind, V, 407, 1847.
- Towiachs, Latham, Nat. Hist. Man, 349, 1850 (includes
Towiach, Tawakenoes, Towecas?, Wacos).
Towiacks, Gallatin in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, III, 402, 1853.
- Natchitoches, Gallatin in Trans. and Coll. Am. Antiq. Soc.,
II, 116, 1836 (stated by Dr. Sibley to speak a language
different from any other). Latham, Nat. Hist. Man, 342, 1850.
Prichard, Phys. Hist. Mankind, V, 406, 1847 (after Gallatin).
Gallatin in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, III, 402, 1853 (a single
- Aliche, Latham, Nat. Hist. Man, 349, 1850 (near Nacogdoches;
- Yatassees, Gallatin in Trans. and Coll. Am. Antiq. Soc., II,
116, 1836 (the single tribe; said by Dr. Sibley to be different
from any other; referred to as a family).
- Riccarees, Latham, Nat. Hist. Man, 344, 1850 (kept distinct
from Pawnee family).
- Washita, Latham in Trans. Philolog. Soc., Lond., 103, 1856.
Buschmann, Spuren der aztek. Sprache, 441, 1859 (revokes
previous opinion of its distinctness and refers it to Pawnee
- Witchitas, Buschmann, ibid., (same as his Washita).
Derivation: From the Caddo term ka´-ede, signifying “chief” (Gatschet).
The Pawnee and Caddo, now known to be of the same linguistic
family, were supposed by Gallatin and by many later writers to be
distinct, and accordingly both names appear in the Arcaeologia
Americana as family designations. Both names are unobjectionable,
but as the term Caddo has priority by a few pages preference is
given to it.
Gallatin states “that the Caddoes formerly lived 300 miles up Red
River but have now moved to a branch of Red River.” He refers to the
Nandakoes, the Inies or Tachies, and the Nabedaches as speaking
dialects of the Caddo language.
Under Pawnee two tribes were included by Gallatin: The Pawnees
proper and the Ricaras. The Pawnee tribes occupied the country on
the Platte River adjoining the Loup Fork. The Ricara towns were on
the upper Missouri in latitude 46° 30'. 60 The boundaries of the
Caddoan family, as at present understood, can best be given under
three primary groups, Northern, Middle, and Southern.
Northern group.—This comprises the
Arikara or Ree, now confined to a small village (on Fort Berthold
Reservation, North Dakota,) which they share with the Mandan and
Hidatsa tribes of the Siouan family. The Arikara are the remains of
ten different tribes of “Paneas,” who had been driven from their
country lower down the Missouri River (near the Ponka habitat in
northern Nebraska) by the Dakota. In 1804 they were in three
villages, nearer their present location.21
According to Omaha tradition, the Arikara were their allies when
these two tribes and several others were east of the Mississippi
River.22 Fort Berthold Reservation, their present abode, is in the
northwest corner of North Dakota.
Middle group.—This includes the four
tribes or villages of Pawnee, the Grand, Republican, Tapage, and
Skidi. Dunbar says: “The original hunting ground of the Pawnee
extended from the Niobrara,” in Nebraska, “south to the Arkansas,
but no definite boundaries can be fixed.” In modern times their
villages have been on the Platte River west of Columbus, Nebraska.
The Omaha and Oto were sometimes southeast of them near the mouth of
the Platte, and the Comanche were northwest of them on the upper
part of one of the branches of the Loup Fork.23 The Pawnee were
removed to Indian Territory in 1876. The Grand Pawnee and Tapage did
not wander far from their habitat on the Platte. The Republican
Pawnee separated from the Grand about the year 1796, and made a
village on a “large northwardly branch of the Kansas River, to which
they have given their name; afterwards they subdivided, and lived in
different parts of the country on the waters of Kansas River. In
1805 they rejoined the Grand Pawnee.” The Skidi (Panimaha, or Pawnee
Loup), according to Omaha tradition,24 formerly dwelt east of the
Mississippi River, where they were the allies of the Arikara, Omaha, Ponka, etc. After their passage of the Missouri they were conquered
by the Grand Pawnee, Tapage, and Republican tribes, with whom they
have remained to this day. De L’Isle25 gives twelve Panimaha
villages on the Missouri River north of the Pani villages on the
Southern group.—This includes the
Caddo, Wichita, Kichai, and other tribes or villages which were
formerly in Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, and Indian Territory. 61 The
Caddo and Kichai have undoubtedly been removed from their priscan
habitats, but the Wichita, judging from the survival of local names
(Washita River, Indian Territory, Wichita Falls, Texas) and the
statement of La Harpe,26 are now in or near one of their early
abodes. Dr. Sibley27 locates the Caddo habitat 35 miles west of the
main branch of Red River, being 120 miles by land from Natchitoches,
and they formerly lived 375 miles higher up. Cornell’s Atlas (1870)
places Caddo Lake in the northwest corner of Louisiana, in Caddo
County. It also gives both Washita and Witchita as the name of a
tributary of Red River of Louisiana. This duplication of names seems
to show that the Wichita migrated from northwestern Louisiana and
southwestern Arkansas to the Indian Territory. After comparing the
statements of Dr. Sibley (as above) respecting the habitats of the
Anadarko, loni, Nabadache, and Eyish with those of Schermerhorn
respecting the Kädo hadatco,28 of Le Page Du Pratz (1758) concerning
the Natchitoches, of Tonti29 and La Harpe30 about the Yatasi, of La
Harpe (as above) about the Wichita, and of Sibley concerning the
Kichai, we are led to fix upon the following as the approximate
boundaries of the habitat of the southern group of the Caddoan
family: Beginning on the northwest with that part of Indian
Territory now occupied by the Wichita, Chickasaw, and Kiowa and
Comanche Reservations, and running along the southern border of the
Choctaw Reservation to the Arkansas line; thence due east to the
headwaters of Washita or Witchita River, Polk County, Arkansas;
thence through Arkansas and Louisiana along the western bank of that
river to its mouth; thence southwest through Louisiana striking the
Sabine River near Salem and Belgrade; thence southwest through Texas
to Tawakonay Creek, and along that stream to the Brazos River;
thence following that stream to Palo Pinto, Texas; thence northwest
to the mouth of the North Fork of Red River; and thence to the
Omaha pronunciation of the name of a Pawnee tribe, Ki-dhi´-chash or
Population.—The present number of
the Caddoan stock is 2,259, of whom 447 are on the Fort Berthold
Reservation, North Dakota, and the rest in the Indian Territory,
some on the Ponca, Pawnee, and Otoe Reservation, the others on the
Kiowa, Comanche, and Wichita Reservation. Below is given the
population of the tribes officially recognized, compiled chiefly
from the Indian Report for 1889:
Indian Linguistic Families of America North of Mexico, 1891