- Kiaways, Gallatin in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, III, 402,
1853 (on upper waters Arkansas).
- Kioway, Turner in Pac. R. R. Rep., III, pt. 3, 55, 80, 1856
(based on the (Caigua) tribe only). Buschmann, Spuren der aztek.
Sprache, 432, 433, 1859. Latham, EL. Comp. Phil., 444, 1862
(“more Paduca than aught else”).
- Kayowe, Gatschet in Am. Antiq., 280, Oct., 1882 (gives
Derivation: From the Kiowa word Kó-i, plural Kó-igu, meaning
“Káyowe man.” The Comanche term káyowe means “rat.”
The author who first formally separated this family appears to have
been Turner. Gallatin mentions the tribe and remarks that owing to
the loss of Dr. Say’s vocabularies “we only know that both the Kiowa
and Kaskaia languages were harsh, guttural, and extremely
difficult.”60 Turner, upon
the strength of a vocabulary furnished by Lieut. Whipple, dissents
from the opinion expressed by Pike and others to the effect that the
language is of the same stock as the Comanche, and, while admitting
that its relationship to Comanche is greater than to any other
family, thinks that the likeness is merely the result of long
intercommunication. His opinion that it is entirely distinct from
any other language has been indorsed by Buschmann and other
authorities. The family is represented by the Kiowa tribe.
So intimately associated with the
Comanche have the
Kiowa been since known to history that it is not easy to
determine their pristine home. By the Medicine Creek treaty of
October 18, 1867, they and the Comanche were assigned their present
reservation in the Indian Territory, both resigning all claims to
other territory, especially their claims and rights in and to the
country north of the Cimarron River and west of the eastern boundary
of New Mexico.
The terms of the cession might be taken to indicate a joint
ownership of territory, but it is more likely that the Kiowa
territory adjoined the Comanche on the northwest. In fact Pope61
definitely locates the Kiowa in the valley of the Upper Arkansas,
and of its tributary, the Purgatory (Las Animas) River. This is in
substantial accord with the statements of other writers of about the
same period. Schermerhorn (1812) places the Kiowa on the heads of
the Arkansas and Platte. Earlier still they appear upon the
headwaters of the Platte, which is the region assigned them upon the
map.62 This region was
occupied later by the Cheyenne and Arapaho of Algonquian stock.
Population.—According to the United
States census for 1890 there are 1,140 Kiowa on the Kiowa, Comanche,
and Wichita Reservation, Indian Territory.
Indian Linguistic Families of America North of Mexico, 1891