- Shahaptan, Scouler in Jour. Roy. Geog. Soc., XI, 225, 1841
(three tribes, Shahaptan or Nez-percés, Kliketat, Okanagan; the
latter being Salishan).
- Shahaptan, Prichard, Phys. Hist. Mankind, V, 428, 1847 (two
classes, Nez-perces proper of mountains, and Polanches of
plains; includes also Kliketat and Okanagan).
- Sahaptin, Hale in U.S. Expl. Expd., VI, 198, 212, 542, 1846
(Shahaptin or Nez-percés, Wallawallas, Pelooses, Yakemas,
Klikatats). Gallatin in Trans. Am. Eth. Soc., II, pt. 1, c, 14,
1848 (follows Hale). Gallatin, ibid., II, pt. 1, c, 77, 1848
(Nez-percés only). Berghaus (1851), Physik. Atlas, map 17, 1852.
Gallatin in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, III, 402, 1853 (Nez-perces
and Wallawallas). Dall, after Gibbs, in Cont. N.A. Eth., 1, 241,
1877 (includes Taitinapam and Kliketat).
- Saptin, Prichard, Phys. Hist. Mankind, V, 428, 1847 (or
- Sahaptin, Latham, Nat. Hist. Man, 323, 1850 (includes
Wallawallas, Kliketat, Proper Sahaptin or Nez-percés, Pelús,
Yakemas, Cayús?). Latham in Trans. Philolog. Soc. Lond., 73,
1856 (includes Waiilatpu). Buschmann, Spuren der 107 aztek.
Sprache, 614, 615, 1859. Latham, Opuscula, 340, 1860 (as in
1856). Latham, El. Comp. Phil., 440, 1862 (vocabularies Sahaptin,
Wallawalla, Kliketat). Keane, App. Stanford’s Comp. (Cent, and
So. Am.), 460, 474, 1878 (includes Palouse, Walla Wallas,
Yakimas, Tairtlas, Kliketats or Pshawanwappams, Cayuse, Mollale;
the two last are Waiilatpuan).
- Sahaptin, Gatschet in Mag. Am. Hist., 168, 1877 (defines
habitat and enumerates tribes of). Gatschet in Beach, Ind.
Misc., 443, 1877. Bancroft, Nat. Races, III, 565, 620, 1882.
- Shahaptani, Tolmie and Dawson, Comp. Vocabs., 78, 1884 (Whulwhaipum
- Nez-percés, Prichard, Phys. Hist. Mankind, V, 428, 1847 (see
Shahaptan). Keane, App. Stanford’s Comp. (Cent, and So. Am.),
474, 1878 (see his Sahaptin).
- Seliah, Dall, after Gibbs, in Cont. N.A. Eth., I, 241, 1877
(includes Yakama which belongs here)
Derivation: From a Selish word of unknown significance.
The Shahaptan family of Scouler comprised three tribes—the Shahaptan
Nez Percés, the
Kliketat, a scion of the Shahaptan, dwelling near Mount Ranier,
Okanagan, inhabiting the upper part of Fraser River and its
tributaries; “these tribes were asserted to speak dialects of the
same language.” Of the above tribes the Okinagan are now known to be
The vocabularies given by Scouler were collected by Tolmie. The term
“Sahaptin” appears on Gallatin’s map of 1836, where it doubtless
refers only to the Nez Percé tribe proper, with respect to whose
linguistic affinities Gallatin apparently knew nothing at the time.
At all events the name occurs nowhere in his discussion of the
The tribes of this family occupied a large section of country along
the Columbia and its tributaries. Their western boundary was the
Cascade Mountains; their westernmost bands, the Klikitat on the
north, the Tyigh and Warm Springs on the south, enveloping for a
short distance the Chinook territory along the Columbia which
extended to the Dalles. Shahaptian tribes extended along the
tributaries of the Columbia for a considerable distance, their
northern boundary being indicated by about the forty-sixth parallel,
their southern by about the forty-fourth. Their eastern extension
was interrupted by the Bitter Root Mountains.
Principal Tribes and Population
Chopunnish (Nez Percé), 1,515 on Nez Percé Reservation, Idaho.
Klikitat, say one-half of 330 natives, on Yakama Reservation,
Paloos, Yakama Reservation, number unknown.
Tenaino, 69 on Warm Springs Reservation, Oregon.
Tyigh, 430 on Warm Springs Reservation, Oregon.
Umatilla, 179 on Umatilla Reservation, Oregon.
Walla Walla, 405 on Umatilla Reservation, Oregon.
Indian Linguistic Families of America North of Mexico, 1891