13th. Iawbeance, The Little Male, a young man.
14th. Margret, wife of Metakoosega, came in the name of her
husband, confined by a sore hand and unable to work. 3, 10.
15th. Wabishkipenaysee, 6, 18, an Ontonagon Indian, who
thinks he is abandoned by his Manito.
16th. Naugitshigome and band, 12, 48. This is an old man, a
chief by descent, but has neither medal nor flag from the British or
American government. His followers, consisting of some relations,
entitle him to some respect, although his foreign attachments have
prevented my receiving him as a chief. His visits are, however,
constant, and he professes himself friendly. His prejudices have
evidently given way a good deal, and the kindness and charity shown
to him, mixed with admonition, have produced a sensible change in
18th. Caubaonaquet, 6, 36.
21st. Moazomonee, 4, 14, of St. Croix, L.S., made a speech,
stating the circumstances which brought him down, and imploring
charity in clothes, &c. Presented a pipe to him; gave him an axe,
spears, chisel, fire-steel, leggings, &c.
24th. Oaugaugee, Little Crow, 4, 12, a son-in-law of
Naugitchigome, brought some hares as a present.
27th. Ochipway, a stout, athletic young Indian, having a wife
and children. He said his youngest child was ill, and requested a
physician to be sent to see him.
27th. Negaubeyun, 12, 36.
Oshawano. Told him to come some other time. Axe and spears.
29th. Akewaizee applied for provisions and an axe, saying his
axe had been stolen; that he wished to go down the river. I taxed
him with selling his axe for liquor, but he denied this, saying that
he never sold what he received as presents, and that it was stolen
while he was fishing. Gave him an axe, with an injunction that he
must take better care of it than he did of the last. Ten rations.
30th. Metacosseguay and wife. Said he had not been able to
hunt or fish for some time, and had been disappointed in getting
flour for some fish he had sold; that the trader had promised him
flour when the vessel came, but no vessel had come. This being the
third visit of this man and family within three weeks, I told
him that while he was unwell I had given him, but now he was able to
hunt or trap or fish, he must do so; that he came to me too often,
and sometimes after he had sold the avails of his hunt, and taken
the whole in liquor, he relied upon me for provisions; that I saw
clearly what was going on about me, and he could not deceive me by
idle stories, &c.; that he was constantly calling me father, and
entreating me to look upon him as a child, and I did so, not only in
giving, but also in refusing; that reasonable children did not
trouble their fathers too often, and never requested anything but
when they were really in need, &c. I ordered him a plug of
tobacco, and told him to go to his lodge and smoke upon my words,
and he would find them good. He went away seemingly as well pleased
as if I had met his requests, shaking me and my interpreter
cordially by the hand, and his wife dropping a curtsey as she left
30th. Moazomonee, nephew, and brother-in-law, came for some
muskrat traps I had promised him on his last visit. As this man
belongs to a band on the head of River St. Croix, 700 miles inland,
and will return there in the spring, the opinions he may imbibe of
our government may have an important influence with his relatives,
and I therefore determined to make a favorable impression upon him
by issuing some presents. In his lodge are four men, three women,
and a number of children. Issued sixteen rations.
Decr. 1st. Cath. and Gikkaw applied for awls.
2d. Oshawano and his youngest son. Said he had three
daughters who had to cut wood every day, and had no axe of their
own; that he was in want of an ice-chisel; fever in family. Gave him
twenty rations. Thanked me and bade me good-day.
4th. Caubamossa, nephew, wife, and child. Twelve rations.
4th. Odawau, Refused provisions. Elder brother to Oshawano,
4th. Getsha Akkewaize. Refused provisions. Told him that on
account of visits to D.I., &c.
4th. Moazonee came for traps promised him, also a knife and
fire-steel. Told him to hunt assiduously, but if he could procure
nothing, to come to me for provisions.
7th. Merchand. Old iron to mend.
7th. Nauwaquaygahig. 12, axe, &c.
9th. Namewunagunboway. 12.
9th. Merchand. Twenty rations, five persons.
13th. Ketetckeewagauboway. Axe and spears.
13th. Gitshee Ojibway.
17th. Naugitchigome called at house. Sent off with, a
reprimand never to call on Sunday.
18th. Iaubence brought some birds. Gave rations.
My correspondence during the autumn was by no means neglected. Col.
McKenney, Com. Ind. Affairs, writes (Oct. 17th) in his usual
friendly vein. The official influence of his visit to this remote
portion of the country is seen in several things. He has placed a
sub-agent at La Pointe. He has approved the agent's course of policy
pursued here, and placed the Indian affairs generally on a better
In his "sketches" of his recent tour, he seeks to embody personal
and amusing things which daily befell the party--matters upon which
he was quite at home. I had mentioned to him, while here, that the
time and labor necessary to collect information on Indian topics, of
a literary character, imposed a species of research worthy of
departmental patronage; that I was quite willing to contribute in
this way, and to devote my leisure moments to further researches on
the aboriginal history and languages, if the government would
appropriate means to this end. I took the occasion to put these
views in writing, and, by way of earnest, enclosed him part of a
Nov. 1st. The false views of Indian history and philology,
engendered in some degree by the misapprehensions of Mr. Heckewelder
and some other writers, which were exposed by a glowing article in
the North American Review last year, have had the effect to
provoke further discussion. C. is disposed to prepare another
article for that paper, and is looking about him keenly for new
facts. In a letter of this date, he says: "I am extremely anxious
for your conjugation of the Chippewa substantive verb. Let nothing
prevent you from sending it to me, as it is more essential than I
have time to explain to you. Send me also your observations on the
Chippewa language. Let them come as you had them. Take no time to
11th. Mr. R. S. writes one of his peculiar letters, in which
the sentiments seem to be compressed, as if some species of
finesse were at work--an attenuated worldly precaution which
leads him perpetually to half conceal sentiment, purpose and acts,
as if the operations and business of life were not ten times better
effected by plain straightforwardness than by any other mode. He
has, however, so long dealt with tricky fur-traders and dealers in
interested sentiment, that it seems his intellectual habits are
formed, to some extent, on that model. What annoys me is, that he
supposes himself hid, when, like the ostrich, it is only his own
head that is concealed in the sand. Yet this man is alive to general
moral effort, unites freely in all the benevolent movements of the
day, and has the general air of friendliness in his personal
manners. It continually seems that all the outer world's affairs are
well judged of, but when he comes to draw conclusions of moral men
who have the power of affecting his own interests, there is apparent
constraint, or palpable narrow-mindedness.
29th. Professor Chas. Anthon, of Columbia College, writes for
specimens of Indian eloquence. The world has been grossly misled on
this subject. The great simplicity, and occasional strength, of an
Indian's thoughts, have sometimes led to the use of figures and
epithets of beauty. He is surrounded by all the elements of poetry
and eloquence--tempests, woods, waters, skies. His mythology is
poetic. His world is replete with spirits and gods of all imaginable
kinds and hues. His very position--a race falling before
civilization, and obliged to give up the bow and arrow for the
plough--is poetic and artistic. But he has no sustained eloquence,
no continuous trains of varying thought. It is the flash, the crack
of contending elements. It is not the steady sound of the waterfall.
Such was the eloquent appeal of Logan, revised and pointed by
Gibson. Such was the more sustained speech of Garangula to La
Barrie, the Governor-General of Canada, with La Hontan as a
reporter. Such were the speeches of Pontiac and the eloquent
Sagoyawata, or Red Jacket, the readiest reasoner of them all, which
were diluted rather than improved by admiring paragraphists. Many
persons have purposed to write a volume of Indian eloquence. Mr.
Conant's design on this subject is fresh. The present request is to
supply Mr. Barker, the publisher of "Stephen's Greek Thesaurus,"
Cambridge, England. What under the sun do the learned world suppose
the Indians are made of? A man spending his time painfully to catch
a beaver, or entrap an enemy, without stores of thought, without
leisure, with nothing often to eat, and nothing to put on but
tatters and rags, and, withal, with the whole Anglo-Saxon race
treading on his toes and burning out his vitals with ardent spirits.
Such is the Indian.
I sent the learned professor some perfectly truthful specimens,
recently delivered here on the occasion of a surgeon from the fort
digging up the body of an Indian woman for dissection. They
expressed plain truth without eloquence, and I never heard anything
more of the professor.
30th. Science in America.--I received a friendly letter from
Dr. Samuel L. Mitchell, N. Y. There are, of recent years, more
purely scientific men in the land, no doubt, than the venerable
doctor. But could this have been said truly even ten years ago? He
is now, perhaps, the best ichthyologist in the Union. He is a
well-read zoologist, an intelligent botanist and a general
physiologist, and has been for a long series of years the focus of
the diffusion of knowledge on a great variety of subjects. Gov.
Clinton has well called him the "Delphic Oracle" in one of his
Letters of Hibernicus, because every one who has a scientific
question to ask comes to him.
"The Lyceum of Natural History," he writes, "is going on
prosperously in the collection of articles and in the publication of
intelligence. The museum is enlarging and the annals progressing.
The intercourse of New York city with almost numberless parts of the
globe, aided by the enterprise and generosity of our navigating
citizens, is productive of an almost constant supply of natural
productions, some familiar, some known to naturalists, but not
before seen by us, and others new to the whole class of observers."
Dec. 1st. Much leisure during the four years I have been at
this agency, added to an early developed distaste for the ordinary
modes of killing time, has enabled me to give no little of my
leisure to literary pursuits. The interesting phenomena of the
Indian grammar have come in for a large share of my attention. This
has caused me to revise and extend my early studies, and to rummage
such books on general grammar and philology as I could lay my hands
on. Every winter, beginning as soon as the navigation closes and the
world is fairly shut out, has thus constituted a season of studies.
My attention has been perpetually divided between books and living
interpreters. This may be said to be my fourth year's course
with the Johnstons on the languages.
I have also resumed, as an alternate amusement, "The Literary
Voyager." I wrote this year "The Man of Bronze," an essay on the
Indian character, which has contributed to my own amusement, nor
have I determined to show it to a human eye.
write what others deftly may,
I aim with
thought to fill my wintry day.
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Personal Memoirs of a Residence of Thirty Years with the
Indian Tribes on the American Frontiers, 1851
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Years with the Indians