1859. Kane, Paul
Wanderings of an artist among the Indians of North America from
Canada to Vancouver’s Island and Oregon through the Hudson’s Bay
Company’s territory and back again. London, 1859.
The interesting account of the author’s travels among the Indians,
chiefly in the Northwest, and of their habits, is followed by a four
page supplement, giving the names, locations, and census of the
tribes of the Northwest coast. They are classified by language into
Chymseyan, including the Nass, Chymseyans, Skeena and Sabassas
Indians, of whom twenty-one tribes are given; Ha-eelb-zuk or
Ballabola, including the Milbank Sound Indians, with nine tribes;
Klen-ekate, including twenty tribes; Hai-dai, including the Kygargey
and Queen Charlotte’s Island Indians, nineteen tribes being
enumerated; and Qua-colth, with twenty-nine tribes. No statement of
the origin of these tables is given, and they reappear, with no
explanation, in Schoolcraft’s Indian Tribes, volume V, pp. 487-489.
In his Queen Charlotte Islands, 1870, Dawson publishes the part of
this table relating to the Haida, with the statement that he
received it from Dr. W. F. Tolmie. The census was made in 1836-’41
by the late Mr. John Work, who doubtless was the author of the more
complete tables published by Kane and Schoolcraft.
1862. Latham, Robert Gordon
Elements of comparative philology. London, 1862.
The object of this volume is, as the author states in his preface,
“to lay before the reader the chief facts and the chief trains of
reasoning in Comparative Philology.” Among the great mass of
material accumulated for the purpose a share is devoted to the
languages of North America. The remarks under these are often taken
verbatim from the author’s earlier papers, to which reference has
been made above, and the family names and classification set forth
in them are substantially repeated.
1862. Hayden, Ferdinand Vandeveer
Contributions to the ethnography and philology of the Indian tribes
of the Missouri Valley. Philadelphia, 1862.
This is a valuable contribution to our knowledge of the Missouri
River tribes, made at a time when the information concerning them
was none too precise. The tribes treated of are classified as
I. Knisteneaux, or Crees. }
II. Blackfeet. } Algonkin Group, A.
III. Shyennes. }
IV. Arapohos. } Arapoho Group, B.
V. Atsinas. }
VI. Pawnees. } Pawnee Group, C.
VII. Arikaras. }
VIII. Dakotas. }
IX. Assiniboins. }
X. Crows. }
XI. Minnitarees. } Dakota Group, D.
XII. Mandans. }
XIII. Omahas. }
XIV. Iowas. }
1864. Orozco y Berra, Manuel
Geografía de las Lenguas y Carta Etnográfica de México Precedidas de
un ensayo de clasificacion de las mismas lenguas y de apuntes para
las inmigraciones de las tribus. Mexico, 1864.
The work is divided into three parts. (1) Tentative classification
of the languages of Mexico; (2) notes on the immigration of the
tribes of Mexico; (3) geography of the languages of Mexico.
The author states that he has no knowledge whatever of the languages
he treats of. All he attempts to do is to summarize the opinions of
others. His authorities were (1) writers on native grammars; (2)
missionaries; (3) persons who are reputed to be versed in such
matters. He professes to have used his own judgment only when these
authorities left him free to do so.
His stated method in compiling the ethnographic map was to place
before him the map of a certain department, examine all his
authorities bearing on that department, and to mark with a
distinctive color all localities said to belong to a particular
language. When this was done he drew a boundary line around the area
of that language. Examination of the map shows that he has partly
expressed on it the classification of languages as given in the
first part of his text, and partly limited himself to indicating the
geographic boundaries of languages, without, however, giving the
boundaries of all the languages mentioned in his lists.
1865. Pimentel, Francisco
Cuadro Descriptivo y Comparativo de las Lenguas Indígenas de México.
According to the introduction this work is divided into three parts:
(1) descriptive; (2) comparative; (3) critical.
The author divides the treatment of each language into (1) its
mechanism; (2) its dictionary; (3) its grammar. By “mechanism” he
means pronunciation and composition; by “dictionary” he means the
commonest or most notable words.
In the case of each language he states the localities where it is
spoken, giving a short sketch of its history, the explanation of its
etymology, and a list of such writers on that language as he has
become acquainted with. Then follows: “mechanism, dictionary, and
grammar.” Next he enumerates its dialects if there are any, and
compares specimens of them when he is able. He gives the Our Father
when he can.
Volume I (1862) contains introduction and twelve languages. Volume
II (1865) contains fourteen groups of languages, a vocabulary of the
Opata language, and an appendix treating of the Comanche, the
Coahuilteco, and various languages of upper California.
Volume III (announced in preface of Volume II) is to contain the
“comparative part” (to be treated in the same “mixed” method as the
“descriptive part”), and a scientific classification of all the
languages spoken in Mexico.
In the “critical part” (apparently dispersed through the other two
parts) the author intends to pass judgment on the merits of the
languages of Mexico, to point out their good qualities and their
1870. Dall, William Healey
On the distribution of the native tribes of Alaska and the adjacent
territory. In Proceedings of the American Association for the
Advancement of Science. Cambridge, 1870, vol. 18.
In this important paper is presented much interesting information
concerning the inhabitants of Alaska and adjacent territories. The
natives are divided into two groups, the Indians of the interior,
and the inhabitants of the coast, or Esquimaux. The latter are
designated by the term Orarians, which are composed of three lesser
groups, Eskimo, Aleutians, and Tuski. The Orarians are
distinguished, first, by their language; second, by their
distribution; third, by their habits; fourth, by their physical
1870. Dall, William Healey
Alaska and its Resources. Boston, 1870.
The classification followed is practically the same as is given in
the author’s article in the Proceedings of the American Association
for the Advancement of Science.
1877. Dall, William Healey
Tribes of the extreme northwest. In Contributions to North American
Ethnology (published by United States Geographical and Geological
Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region). Washington, 1877, vol. 1.
This is an amplification of the paper published in the Proceedings
of the American Association, as above cited. The author states that
“numerous additions and corrections, as well as personal
observations of much before taken at second hand, have placed it in
my power to enlarge and improve my original arrangement.”
In this paper the Orarians are divided into “two well marked
groups,” the Innuit, comprising all the so-called Eskimo and Tuskis,
and the Aleuts. The paper proper is followed by an appendix by Gibbs
and Dall, in which are presented a series of vocabularies from the
northwest, including dialects of the Tlinkit and Haida nations,
T´sim-si-ans, and others.
1877. Gibbs, George
Tribes of Western Washington and Northwestern Oregon. In
Contributions to North American Ethnology. Washington, 1887, vol. 1.
This is a valuable article, and gives many interesting particulars
of the tribes of which it treats. References are here and there made
to the languages of the several tribes, with, however, no attempt at
their classification. A table follows the report, in which is given
by Dall, after Gibbs, a classification of the tribes mentioned by
Gibbs. Five families are mentioned, viz: Nutka, Sahaptin, Tinneh,
Selish, and T´sinuk. The comparative vocabularies follow Part II.
1877. Powers, Stephen
Tribes of California. In Contributions to North American Ethnology.
Washington, 1877, vol. 3.
The extended paper on the Californian tribes which makes up the bulk
of this volume is the most important contribution to the subject
ever made. The author’s unusual opportunities for personal
observation among these tribes were improved to the utmost and the
result is a comparatively full and comprehensive account of their
habits and character.
Here and there are allusions to the languages spoken, with reference
to the families to which the tribes belong. No formal classification
1877. Powell, John Wesley
Appendix. Linguistics edited by J. W. Powell. In Contributions to
North American Ethnology. Washington, 1877, vol. 3.
This appendix consists of a series of comparative vocabularies
collected by Powers, Gibbs and others, classified into linguistic
families, as follows:
9. Santa Barbara.
1877. Gatschet, Albert Samuel
Indian languages of the Pacific States and Territories. In Magazine
of American History. New York, 1877, vol. 1.
After some remarks concerning the nature of language and of the
special characteristics of Indian languages, the author gives a
synopsis of the languages of the Pacific region. The families
4. Santa Barbara
|11. Pomo. 21. Yakon.
12. Wishosk. 22. Cayuse.
13. Eurok. 23. Kalapuya.
14. Weits-pek. 24. Chinook.
15. Cahrok. 25. Sahaptin.
16. Tolewa. 26. Selish.
17. Shasta. 27. Nootka.
18. Pit River. 28. Kootenai.
This is an important paper, and contains notices of several new
stocks, derived from a study of the material furnished by Powers.
The author advocates the plan of using a system of nomenclature
similar in nature to that employed in zoology in the case of generic
and specific names, adding after the name of the tribe the family to
which it belongs; thus: Warm Springs, Sahaptin.
1878. Powell, John Wesley
The nationality of the Pueblos. In the Rocky Mountain Presbyterian.
Denver, November, 1878.
This is a half-column article, the object of which is to assign the
several Pueblos to their proper stocks. A paragraph is devoted to
contradicting the popular belief that the Pueblos are in some way
related to the Aztecs. No vocabularies are given or cited, though
the classification is stated to be a linguistic one.
1878. Keane, Augustus H.
Appendix. Ethnography and philology of America. In Stanford’s
Compendium of Geography and Travel, edited and extended by H. W.
Bates. London, 1878.
In the appendix are given, first, some of the more general
characteristics and peculiarities of Indian languages, followed by a
classification of all the tribes of North America, after which is
given an alphabetical list of American tribes and languages, with
their habitats and the stock to which they belong.
The classification is compiled from many sources, and although it
contains many errors and inconsistencies, it affords on the whole a
good general idea of prevalent views on the subject.
1880. Powell, John Wesley
Pueblo Indians. In the American Naturalist. Philadelphia, 1880, vol.
This is a two-page article in which is set forth a classification of
the Pueblo Indians from linguistic considerations. The Pueblos are
divided into four families or stocks, viz:
Under the several stocks is given a list of those who have collected
vocabularies of these languages and a reference to their
1880. Eells, Myron
The Twana language of Washington Territory. In the American
Antiquarian. Chicago, 1880-’81, vol. 3.
This is a brief article—two and a half pages—on the Twana, Clallam,
and Chemakum Indians. The author finds, upon a comparison of
vocabularies, that the Chemakum language has little in common with
1885. Dall, William Healey
The native tribes of Alaska. In Proceedings of the American
Association for the Advancement of Science, thirty-fourth meeting,
held at Ann Arbor, Mich., August, 1885. Salem, 1886.
This paper is a timely contribution to the subject of the Alaska
tribes, and carries it from the point at which the author left it in
1869 to date, briefly summarizing the several recent additions to
knowledge. It ends with a geographical classification of the Innuit
and Indian tribes of Alaska, with estimates of their numbers.
1885. Bancroft, Hubert Howe
The works of Hubert Howe Bancroft, vol. 3: the native races, vol. 3,
myths and languages. San Francisco, 1882.
Vols. 1-5 collectively are “The Native Races”; vol. 3 is Myths and
In the chapter on that subject the languages are classified by
divisions which appear to correspond to groups, families, tribes,
The classification does not, however, follow any consistent plan,
and is in parts unintelligible.
1882. Gatschet, Albert Samuel
Indian languages of the Pacific States and Territories and of the
Pueblos of New Mexico. In the Magazine of American History. New
York, 1882, vol. 8.
This paper is in the nature of a supplement to a previous one in the
same magazine above referred to. It enlarges further on several of the stocks there considered, and, as the title indicates, treats
also of the Pueblo languages. The families mentioned are:
7. Rio Grande Pueblo.
1883. Hale, Horatio
Indian migrations, as evidenced by language. In The American
Antiquarian and Oriental Journal. Chicago, 1888, vol. 5.
In connection with the object of this paper—the study of Indian
migrations—several linguistic stocks are mentioned, and the
linguistic affinities of a number of tribes are given. The stocks
1885. Tolmie, W. Fraser and Dawson, George M.
Comparative vocabularies of the Indian tribes of British Columbia,
with a map illustrating distribution (Geological and Natural History
Survey of Canada). Montreal, 1884.
The vocabularies presented constitute an important contribution to
linguistic science. They represent “one or more dialects of every
Indian language spoken on the Pacific slope from the Columbia River
north to the Tshilkat River, and beyond, in Alaska; and from the
outermost sea-board to the main continental divide in the Rocky
Mountains.” A colored map shows the area occupied by each linguistic
Indian Linguistic Families of America North of