is made, in the following table, to locate the various bands of
Aborigines, ancient and modern, and to convey the best information
respecting their numbers our multifarious sources will warrant. Modern
writers have been, for several years, endeavoring to divide North
America into certain districts, each of which should include all the
Indians speaking the same, or dialects of the same, language ; but
whoever has paid any attention to that subject, must undoubtedly have
been convinced that it can never be done with any degree of accuracy.
This has been undertaken in reference to an approximation of the great
question of the origin of this people, from a comparison of the various
languages used among them. An unwritten language is easily varied, and
there can be no barrier to innovation. A continual intermixing of tribes
has gone on from the period of their origin to the present time, judging
from what we have daily seen ; and when any two tribes unite, speaking
different languages, or dialects of the same, a new dialect is produced
by such amalgamation. Hence the accumulation of vocabularies would be
like the pursuit of an infinite series in mathematics; with this
difference, however— in the one we recede from the object in pursuit,
while in the other we approach it. But I would not be understood to
speak disparagingly of this attempt at classification ; for, if it be
unimportant in the main design, it will be of considerable service to
the student in Indian history on other accounts. Thus, the lichees are
said to speak a primitive language, and they were districted in a small
territory south of the Cherokees ; but, some 200 years ago,—if they then
existed as a tribe, and their tradition be true,— they were bounded on
the north by one of the great lakes. And they are said to be descended
from the Shawanee by some of themselves. We know an important community
of them is still in existence in Florida. Have they created a new
language in the course of their wanderings? or have those from whom they
separated done so? Such are the difficulties we meet with at every step
of a classification. But a dissertation upon these matters cannot now be
In the following analysis, the names of the tribes have
been generally given in the singular number, for the sake of brevity;
and the word Indians, after such names, is omitted from the same cause.
Few abbreviations have been used:—W. R., west of the Rocky Mountains;
m., miles; r., river; 1., lake; and perhaps a few others. In some
instances, reference is made to the body of the work, where a more
extended account of a tribe is to be found. Such references are to the
Book and Page, the same as in the Index.
E.=east, W=west, N=north, S=south, m=miles, r=river,
l=lake, west of the Rocky Mountains=W.R.
B C D
G H I
J K L
Q R S
T U W
AFFAGOULA, small clan in 1783, on Mississippi river, 8 m. above Point Coupè.
AGAWGM, (Wampanoags,) at Sandwich, Mass; others at Ipswich, in 1620, &C.
AHWAJIAWAY, (Minetare,) S. W. Missouri 1820, 3 m. above Mandans; 200 in 1805.
AJOUES, South of the Missouri, and North of the Padoucas; 1,100 in 1760.
ALANSAR, (Fall,) head branches S. fork Saskashawan; 2,500 in 1804.
ALGONKIN, over Canada; from low down the St. Lawrence to Lake of the Woods.
ALIATAN, three tribes in 1805 among the Rocky Mountains, on heads Platte.
ALICHE, Hear Nacogdoches in 1805, then nearly extinct; spoke Caddo.
ALLAKAWEAH, (Paunch,) both sides Yellowstone, heads Big Born river; 2,200 in
ALLIBAMA, (Creeks,) formerly on that river, but removed to Red River in
AMALISTES, (Algonkins,) once on St. Lawrence; 500 in 1760.
ANASAGUNTAKOOK, (Abenaki,) on sources Androscoggin, in Maine, till 1750.
ANDASTES, once on South shore Lake Erie, S. W. Seneca, who destroyed them in
APACHES, (Lapane,) between Rio del Norte and sources of Nuaces river; 3,500 in
1817. APALACHICOLA, once on that river in W. Florida; removed to Red River in
APPALOUSA, aboriginal in the country of their name; but 40 men in 1805.
AQUANUSCHIONI, the name by which the Iroquois knew themselves.
ARAPAHAS, South side main Canada River; 4,000 in 1836, on Kanzas River.
ARMOUCHIQUOIS, or MARACHITE, (Abenaki,) on River St. John, New Brunswick.
ARRENAMUSE, On St. Antonio River, near its mouth, in Texas ; 120 in 1818.
ASSINNABOIN, (Sioux,) between Assinn. and Missouri river; 1,000 on Ottawa river
ATENAS, in a village with the Faculli in 1836, west of the Rocky Mountains.
ATHAPASCOW, about the shores of the great lake of their name.
ATNAS, (Ojibewas,) next S. of the Athapascow, about lat. 57° N., in 1790.
ATTACAPAS, in a district of their name in Louisiana; but 50 men in 1805.
ATTAPULGAS, (Seminoles,) on Little r., a branch of Oloklikana, 1820, and 220
ATTIKAMIGUES, in N. of Canada, destroyed by pestilence in 1670.
AUCOSISCO, (Abenaki,) between the Saco and Androscoggin River in 1630, &c.
ALUGHQUAGA. On E. branch Susquehannah River; 150 in 1768; since extinct.
AYAUAIS, 40 leagues up the Des Moines, S. E. side; 800 in 1805.
AYUTANS, 8,000 in 1820, S. W. the Missouri, near the Rocky Mountains.
BAYAGOULA, W. bank Mississippi, opposite the Colipasa; important in 1699
BEDIES, on Trinity River, La., about 60 m. S. of Nacogdoches; 100 in 1805.
BIG-DEVILS, (Youktons,) 2,501 in 1836; about the heads of Red River.
BILOXI, at Biloxi, Gulf Mex., 1699; a few on Red r., 1804, where they had
BLACKFEET, sources Missouri; 30,000 in 1834; nearly destroyed by small-pox,
BLANCHE, (Bearded, or White,) upper S. branches of the Missouri in 1820.
BLUE-MUD, W., and in the vicinity of the Rocky Mountains in 1820.
BROTIERTON, near Oneida Lake ; composed of various tribes ; 350 in 1836.
CADDO, on Red River in 1717, powerful ; on Sodo Bay in 1800; in 1804, 100 men.
CADODACHE, (Nacogdochet,) on Angelina r., 100 m. above the Nechez; 60 in 1820.
CAIWAS, or KAIWA, on main Canada River, and S. of it in 1830.
CALASTHOCLE, N. Columbia, on the Pacific, next N. the Chillates; 200 in 1820.
CALLIMIX, coast of the Pacific, 40 m. N. Columbia River; 1,200 in 1820.
CAMANCHES, (Shoshone,) warlike and numerous; in interior of Texas.
CANARSEE, on Long Island, N. Y., in 1610, from the W. end to Jamaica.
CANCES. (Kansas,) 1805, from Bay of St. Bernard, over Grand r., toward Vera Cruz
CANIBAS, (Abenaki,) numerous in 1607, and after; on both sides Kennebeck River.
CARANKOCA, on peninsula of Bay of St. Bernard, Louisiana; 1,500 in 1805.
CAREE, on the coast between the Nuaces and Rio del Norte; 2,600 in 1817.
CARRIERS, (Nateotetains,) a name given the natives of N. Caledonia by traders.
CASTARANA, between sources Padouca fork and Yellowstone; 5,000 in 1805.
CATAKA, between N. and S. forks of Chien River; about 3,000 in 1804.
CATAWBA, till late, on their river in S. Carolina; 1,500 in 1743, and 450 in
CATHLACUMUPS, on main shore Columbia River, S. W. Wappatoo i.; 450 in
CATHLAKAHIKIT, at the rapids of the Columbia, 160 m. up; 900 in 1820.
CATHLAKAMAPS, 80 in. up Columbia River; about 700 in 1820.
CATHLAMAT, on the Pacific, 30 m. S. mouth of Columbia River; 600 in 1820. CATHLANAMIENAMEN,,on an island in mouth of Wallauuurt River; 400 in 1820.
CATHLANAQUIAH, (Wappatoo,) S. W. side Wappatoo Island; 400 in 1820.
CATHLAPOOTLE, on Columbia River, opposite the Cathlakamaps; 1,100 in 1820.
CATHLAPOOYA, 500 in 1820, on the Wallaumut River, 60 m. from its mouth.
CATHLASKO, 900 in 1820, on Columbia River, opposite the Chippanchikchiks.
CATHLATHLA, 900 in 1820, on Columbia River, opposite the Cathlakahikits.
CATHLATH, 500 in 1820, on the Wallaumut River, 60 in. from its mouth.
CATTANAUAW, between the Saskashawan and Missouri Rivers, in 1805.
CACGHNEWAGA, places where Christians lived were so called.
CHACTOO, on Red River; in 1805, but 100; indigenous; always lived there.
CHAOUANONS, the French so called the Shawanese; (Chowans ?)
CHEEGEE, (Cherokees,) 50 to 80 m. S. of them; called also Mid. Settlement, 1780.
CHEHAWS, small tribe on Flint River, destroyed by Georgia militia in 1817.
CHEPEYAN, claim from lat. 600 to 65°, long. 1000 to 110° W.; 7,500 in 1812.
CHEROKEE, in Georgia, S. Carolina, &c., till 1836; then forced beyond the
CHESKITALOWA, (Seminoles,) 580 in 1820, W. side Chattahoochee.
CHIEN, (Dog ) near the sources Chien River; 300 in 1805; 200 in 1820.
CHIHEELEESH, 40 m. N. of Columbia River; 1,400 in 1820.
CHICKASAW, between heads of Mobile River in 1780; once 10,000; now in Arkansas.
CHIPPANCHIKCHIKS, 60 in 1820, N. side Columbia River, 220 in. from its mouth.
CHIKAHOMINI, on Matapony River, Va., in 1661; but 3 or 4 in 1790; now extinct.
CHIKAMAUGAS, on Tennessee River, 90 m. below the Cherokees, in 1790.
156 in 1820, on the Pacific, N. Columbia River, beyond the Quieetsos.
CHILLUKITEQUAU, on the Columbia, next below the Narrows ; 1,400 in 1820.
CHILTZ, N. of Columbia River, on the Pacific, next N. of the Killaxthocles.
CHIMNAHPUM, on Lewis River, N. W. side of the Columbia; 1,800 in 1820.
on N. side Columbia River; in 1820, about 400 in 28 lodges.
Lake Superior, and other vast regions of the N., very numerous.
W. bank Miss. River in 1722; once powerful, then slaves.
CHOKTAW, S. of the
Creeks; 15,000 in 1812; in 1848 in Arkansas.
CHOPUNNISH, on Kooskooskee River;
4,300 in 1806, in 73 lodges.
CHOWANOK, (Shawanese ?) in N. Carolina, on Bennet's Creek, in 1708; 3,000 in
CHOWANS, E. of the Tuscarora in N. Carolina; 60 join the Tuscarora in
CHRISTENAUX, only another spelling of KNISTENAUX, which see.
700 in 1820, on the Columbia River, below the rapids.
CLAKSTAR, W. R., on a
river flowing into the Columbia at Wappatoo Island.
CLAMOCTOMICII, on the
Pacific, next N. of the Chiltz; 260 in 1820.
CLANIMATAS, on the S. W. side of
Wappatoo Island; 200 in 1820, W. R.
CLANNARMINIMUNS, S. W. side of Wappatoo
Island; 280 in 1820, W. R.
CLSTSOPS, about 2 m. N. of the mouth of Columbia
River; 1,300 in 1820.
CLARKAMES, on a river of their name flowing into the
Wallaumut; 1,800 in 1820.
CNEIS, on a river flowing into Sabine Lake, 1690;
the COENIS of Hennepin, probably.
COHAKIES, nearly destroyed in Pontiak's time;
in 1800, a few near Lake Winnebago.
COLAPISSAS, on E. bank Mississippi in 1720,
opposite head of Lake Pontchartrain.
CONCHATTAS came to Appalousas in 1794, from
E. the Mississ.; in 1801, on Sabine.
CONGAREES, a small tribe on Congaree
River, S. Carolina, in 1701; long since gone.
CoNOYS, perhaps Kanliawas, being
once on that river; (Canais, and variations.)
COOKKOO-OOSE, 1,500 in 18016,
coast of Pacific, S. of Columbia r., and S. of Killawats. COOPSPELLAR, on a
river falling into the Columbia, N. of Clark's; 1,600 in 1806.
(Creeks,) once resided near the River Tallapoosie.
COPPER, so called from their
copper ornaments, on Coppermine River, in the north.
CREEES, (Tuscaroras,) on
Neus River, N Carolina, in 1700, and subsequently.
CORONKAWA, on St. Jacintho
River, between Trinity and Brazos; 350 in 1820.
COWLITSICK, on Columbia River,
62 m. from its mouth, in 3 villages; 2,400 in 1820.
Savannah r. to St. Augustine, thence to Flint r., 1730.
CREES, (Lynx, or Cat,)
another name of the Knistenaux, or a part of them.
CROWS, (Absorokas,) S.
branches of the Yellowstone River; 45,000 in 1834.
CUTSAHNIM, on both sides
Columbia River, above the Sokulks; 1,200 in 1820.
DAHCOTA, or DOCOTA, the name by which the Sioux know themselves.
those once on Delaware River and Bay; 500 in 1750.
DINONDADIES, (Hurons,) same
called by the French Tionontaties.
DOEGS, small tribe on the Maryland side
Potomac River, in 1675.
DOGRIBS, (Blackfeet,) but speak a different language.
DOGS, the Chiens of the French. See CHIEN.
DOTAME, 120 in 1805; about the heads
of Chien River, in the open country.
EAMUSES. See EMUSAS.
ECHEMINS, (Canoe-men,) on R. St. Johns; include Passamaquoddies and St. Johns.
EDISTOES, in S. Carolina in 1670; a place still bears their name there.
(Seminoles,) W. side Chattahoochee, 2 m. above the Wekisas ; 20 in 1820.
ENESHURES, at the great Narrows of the Columbia; 1,200 in 1820, in 41 lodges.
ERIES, along E. side of Lake Erie, destroyed by the Iroquois about 1654.
on River Pedee, S. Carolina, in 1701 ; then powerful ; Catawbas, probably.
ESKELOOTS, about 1,000 in 1820, in 21 lodges, or clans, on the Columbia.
ESQUIMAUX, all along the northern coasts of the frozen ocean, N. of 600 N. lat.
ETOHUSSEWAK, (Semin.,) on Chattahoochee, 3 m. above Ft. Gaines; 100 in
FACULLIES, 100 in 1820; on Stuart Lake, W. Rocky Mount.: lat. 540, lon. 125° W.
FALL, so called from their residence at the falls of the Kooskooskee See
FIVE NATIONS, Mohawks, Senecas, Cayugas, Onondagas, and Oneidas;
FLAT-HEADS, (Tutseewas,) on a large river W. R.; on S. fork Columbia
FOLLES AVOINES, the French so called the Menominee.
FOND DU LAC, roam from
Snake River to the Sandy Lakes.
FOWL-TOWNS, (Seminoles,) 12 m. E. Fort Scott;
about 300 in 1820.
FOXES, (Ottagamies,) called Renards by the French ; dispossessed by B. Hawk's
GANAWESE, on the heads of Potomac River; same as Kanhaways, probably.
Martha's Vineyard; 200 in 1809; in 1820, 340.
GRAND RIVER, on Grand r., N. side L. Ontario ; Mohawks, Seneca, and oth.;
GROS VENTRES, W. Mississippi, On Maria River, in 1806; in 1834, 3,000.
HARE-FOOT, next S. of the Esquimaux, and in perpetual war with them.
HALLIBEES, a tribe Creeks, destroyed in 1813,
HANNAKALLAL, 600 in 1820, on Pacific, S. Columbia next beyond the Luckkarso.
HASSANAMESITS, a tribe of Nipmuks, embraced Christianity in 1660
HIHIGHENIMMO, 1,300 in 1820, from month of Lastaw River, up it to the forks
HELLWITS, 100 m. along the Columbia from the falls upward, on the N. side.
HERRING POND a remnant of Wampanoags, in Sandwich, Mass.; about 40.
HIETANS, (Camanches,), erratic bands; from Trinity to Brazos, and Red River
HINI, (Cadodache,) 200 in 1820, On Angelina r., between Red r. and Rio del
HITCHITTEES, once on Chattahoochee r.,
600 now in Arkansas; speak Muskogee.
HOHILPOS, (Tushepahas,) 300 in 1820, above great falls on Clark's River.
HUMAS, Oumas , "Red nation," in Ixsussees Parish, La., in 180., below Manchak.
HURONS, (Wyandots, Quatoghies,) adjacent, and N. gt. lakes; subd. by Iroq., 1650
ILLINOIS, "the lake of men," both sides Illinois r. ;
12,000 in 1670; 60 towns in 1700.
INIES , or TACHIES [Texas ?] branch
Sabine; 80 men in 1806, Speak Caddo.
IOWAYS, On Ioway River before
Black Hawks war; 1.100 beyond the Mississippi.
IROQUOIS, 1606, On St. Lawrence, below Quebec; 1687, 3 odd theo, to Miss.
ISATIS, smnetimes a name of the Sioux before 1755.
ITHKYEMAMITS, 600 in 1820, on N sides Columbia, near the Cathlaskos.
JELAN, one of the three tribes of Camanches, on sources Brazos, Del Norte, &c.
KADAPAUS, a tribe in N. Carolina in 1707.
KAHUNKLES, 400 in 1820, W. Rocky Mountains; abode unknown.
KALOOSAS, a tribe
found early in Florida, long since extinct.
KANENAVISH, on the Padoucas' fork of the Platte; 400 in 1805.
KANHAWAS, Ganawese or Canhaways; on the River Kanhawa, formerly.
KANSAS, on the Arkansas River; about 1,000 in 1836 ; in 1820, 1,850.
(Illin.) on a river of same name flowing into the Mississ. ; 250 in 1797.
KASKAYAS, between sources of the Platte and Rocky Mountains, 3,000 in 1836.
KATTEKA, (Padoucas,) not located by travellers. See PADOUCAS.
KEEKATSA, (Crows,) both sides Yellowstone above mouth Big Horn r., 3,500 in
KEYCHE, E. branch Trinity River in 1806; Once on the Sabine; 260 in 1820.
KIAWAS, On Padouca River, beyond the Kites; 1,000 in 1806.
KIGENE, on the shore of Pacific Ocean in 1821, under the chief Skittegates.
KIKAPOO, formerly in Illinois; now about 300, chiefly beyond the Mississippi.
KILLAMUK, a branch of the Clatsops, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean; about
KILLAWAT, in a larege town on the coast of the Pacific, E of the Luktons.
KILLAXTHOCLES, 100 in 1820, at the mouth of Columbia River, on N. side.
KIMOENIMS, a band of the Chopunnish, on Lewis's River; 800 in 1820, in 33 clans.
KINAL, about Cook's
Inlet, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean.
KITES, (Staetans,) between sources Platte and Rocky Mountains; about 500 in
KISKAKONS inhabited Michilmakinak in 1680; a Huron tribe.
KNISTENAUX, on Assinnaboin River; 5,000 in 1812; numerous; women comely.
KONAGENS, Esquimaux, inhabiting Kadjak Island, lat 58° lon 152º W.
KOOK-KOO-OOSE, on the coast of the Pacific, S. of the Killawats; 1,500 in 1835.
KUSKARAWAOKS, one of six tribes on E. shore of Chesapeak in 1607; ('Tuscaroras
2,000 in 1820, both sides Columbia, above the mouth of Clark's River.
LAPANNE, See APACHES.
LARTIELO, 600 in 1820, at the falls of Lastaw River, below Wayton Lake
LEAF, (Sioux,) 600 in 1820, on the Missouri, above Prairie du Chien.
about 350 in 1820, near Sandy Lake, lat. 46° 9' N.
LENNA LENAPE, once from
Hudson to Delaware River; now scattered in the West.
LIPANIS, 800 in 1816, from Rio Grande to the interior of Texas; light
LOUCHEUX, next N. of the Esquimaux, or S. of lat. 67° 15' N.
830 in 1820, W. of the Rocky Mountains; abode unknown.
LUKKARSO, 1,200 in
1820, coast of Pacific, S. of Columbia r. beyond the Shallalah.
LUKTONS, 20 in 1820, W. of the
Rocky Mountains; abode unknown.
MACHAPUNGAS, in N. Carolina in 1700; practiced circumcision.
MANDANs, 1,250 in
1805, 1200 m. fm. mouth of Miisso. 1838 reduced to 21 ands, pox.
MANGOAGS, or TUTELOES, (Iroquois,)
Nottoway River, formerly, now extinct.
MANHATTANS, (Mohicans,) once on the island where New York city now
MANNAHOAKS, once on the upper waters of the Rappahannock r.; extinct long ago.
MARACHITES, (Abenakies,) on the St. John's ; a remnant remains.
mice on Long Island, S, side of Oyster Bay; extinct.
MARSHPEES, (Wampanoags,) 315 in 18:32; Barnstable Co. Mas. mixed with blacks.
MASCOUTINS, or FIRE,
IND., betw. Mississ. and L. Michigan, 1665; (Sacs and Foxes?)
MASSACHUSETTS, the state perpetuates their name.
MASSAWOMES (Iroquois,) once spread over Kentucky.
MATHLASOBS, 500 in 1820, on an island in the
mouth of Wallaumut River, W. R.
MAYES, 600 in 1805, St. Gabriel Creek, mouth of Guadaloupe River, Louisiana.
MENOMINIES, (Algonkins,) once on Illinois r. ; now 300 W. Mississippi.
MESSASSAGNES, 2,000 in 1764, N. of, and adjacent to, L. Huron and Superior.
MIAMIS, (Algonkins,) once on the r. of their name; now 1,500, beyond the Mississ.
MIKASAUKIES, (Seminoles,) about 1,000 in 1821 ; very warlike.
MIKMAKS, (Algonkius,) 3,000 in 1760, in Nova Scotia ; the Suriquois of the
MIKSUKSEALTON, (Tushepaha,) 300 in 1820, Clark's River, above great
falls, W. R.
MINETARES, 2,500 in 1805, 5 m. above the Mandans, on both sides
Knife River. MINDAWARCARTON, in 1805, on both sides Mississippi, from St.
MINGOES, once such of the Iroquois were so called as resided
upon the Scioto River.
MINSI, Wolf tribe of the Lenna Lenape, once over New
Jersey and part of Penn.
MISSOURIES, once on that part of the River just below
Grand r., in 1820.
MITCHIGAMIES, one of the five tribes of the Illinois ;
MOHAWKS, head of Five Nations ; formerly on Mohawk r. ; a
few now in Canada.
MOHEGANS, or MOHEAKUNNUKS, in 1610, Hudson r. from Esopus to
MONACANS, (Tuscaroras,) once near where Richmond, Virginia, now is.
MONGOULATCIIES, on the W. side of the Mississippi. See BAYAGOULAS.
(Algonkins,) N. side St. Law., betw. Saguenay and Tadousac, in 1609.
on E. end of Long Island, formerly ; head of 13 tribes of that island.
80 in 1607; 40 in 1669, in Lancaster and Richmond counties, Virginia.
once a numerous race on the E. side of the Isthmus of Darien.
800 in 1820, mouth of Multnomah River, W. R.
MUNSEYS, (Delawares,) in 1780, N.
branch Susquehannah r. ; to the Wabash in 1808.
MUSKOGEES, 17,000 in 1775, on
Alabama and Apalachicola Rivers. See B. iv.
NABEDACHES, (Caddo,) on branch Sabine, 15 m. above the Inies; 400 in 1805.
NABIJOS, between N. Mexico and the Pacific ; live in stone houses, and
NANDAKOES, 120 in 1805, on Sabine, 60 m. W. of the Yattassees ;
NANTIKOKES, 1711, on Nantikoke River; 1755, at Wyoming; same year went
NARCOTAR, the name by which the Sioux know themselves.
side of the bay which perpetuates their name; nearly extinct.
on that river from its mouth, in Massachusetts.
NATCHEZ, at Natchez ;
discovered, 1701 ; chiefly destroyed by French, 1720.
NATCHITOCHES, once at
that place; 100 in 1804; now upon Red River.
NATEOTETAINS, 200 in 1820, W. R.,
on a river of their name, W. of the Facullies.
NATIKS, (Nipmuks,) in
Massachusetts, in a town now called after them.
NECHACOKE, (Wappatoo,) 100 in
1820, S. side Columbia, near Quicksand r., W. R.
NEEKEETOO, 700 in 1820, on the
Pacific, S. of the Columbia, beyond the Youicone.
200 in 1820, N. side Wallaumut River, 3 m. up.
NIANTIES, a tribe of the
Narragansets, and in alliance with them, p. 131.
NICARIAGAS, once about
Michilimakinak ; joined Iroquois in 1723, as seventh nation
Algonkins,) 400 in 1764, near the source of Ottoway River.
interior of Mass. ; 1,500 in 1775 ; extinct. See p. 82, 104, 164, 276.
NORRIDGEWOKS, (Abenakies,) on Penobscot River. See Book iii. 303, 311.
on Nottoway River, in Virginia; but 2 of clear blood in 1817.
(Mohicans,) or MANHATTANS, once about the Narrows, in New York.
OAKMULGES, (Muskogees,) to the E. of Flint River; about 200 in 1834.
OCAMECHES, in Virginia in 1607; had before been powerful; then reduced.
See UCHEES. - Perhaps Ochesos; 230 in Florida in 1826, at Ochee Bluff
(Creeks.) See Book iv. 369.
OJIBWAS, (Chippeways,) 30,000 in 1836, about the great lakes, and N. of them.
OKATIOKINANS, (Seminoles,) 580 in 1820, near Fort Gaines, E. side Mississippi.
OMAHAS, 2,200 in 1820, on Elkhorn River, 80 m. front Council Bluffs.
one of the Five Nations ; chief seat near Oneida Lake, New York.
of the Five Nations; formerly in New York; 300 in 1840.
400 in 1820, on Clark's River, W. Rocky Mountains.
OSAOES, 4,000 in 1830, about
Arkansas and Osage Rivers; many tribes.
OTAGAMIES, (Winnebagoes,) 300 in 1780, betw. Lake of the Woods and the Mississ.
OTOES, 1,500 in 1820; in 1805, 500; 15 leagues up the River Platte, on S. side.
OTTAWAS, 1670, removed from L. Superior to Michilimakinak ; 2,800 in 1820.
OUIATANONS, or WAAS, (Kikapoos,) mouth of Eel r., Ind., 1791, in a village 3 m.
OUMAS, E. bank Mississippi in 1722, in 2 villages, quarter of a mile front
OWASSISSAS, (Seminoles,) 100 in 1820, on E. waters of St. Mark's
OWAS, 2,000 in 1750; on Ozaw River in 1780, which flows into the
OZIMIES, one of the six tribes on E. shore of Maryland and Virginia
PACANAS, on Quelquechose River, La. ; 30 men in 1805 ; 40 m. S. W. Natchitoches.
PADOUCAS, 2,000 warriors in 1721, on the Kansas ; dispersed before 1805.
PADOWAGAS, by some the Senecas were so called; uncertain.
PAILSH, 200 in 1820,
on coast of the Pacific, N. Columbia r., beyond the Potoashs.
PALACHES, a tribe
found early in Florida, but long since extinct.
PAMI.ICO, but 15 in 1708, about
Pamlico Sound, in N. Carolina; extinct.
PANCAS once on Red River, Of Winnipec L. ; afterwards joined the Omahas.
PANIS, (Tonicas,) 40 villages in 1750, S. br.
Missouri; 70 villages on Red r., 1755.
PANNEH. See ALLAKAWEAH, 2,300 in 1805, on heads Big Horn River.
PASCATAWAYS, once a considerable tribe on the Maryland side Potomac
PASCAGOULAS 25 men in 1805, on Red r., 60 in. below Natchitoches ; from
Florida. PASSAMAQUODDIE, on Schoodak r., Me., in Perry Pleasant Point, a
PAUNEE, 10,000 in 1820, on the Platte and Kansas; Republicans, Loupes,
and Picts. PAWISTUCIENMUK, 500 in 1820; small, brave tribe, in the
prairies of Missouri.
PAWTUCKETS, (Nipmuks,) on Merrimac River, where Chelmsford now is;
PEGANS, (Nipmuks,) 10 in 1793, in Dudley, Mass. on a reservation of 200
PELLOATPALLAH, (Chopunnish,) 1,600 in 1820, on Kooskooskee r., above
PENOBSCOTS, (Abenakies,) 330, on an island in Penobscot r., 12 in. above
PENNAKOOKS, (Nipmuks,) along Merrimac r., where is now Concord, N. H.,
PEORIAS, 97 in 1820, on Current River ; one of the five tribes of the
PEQUAKETS, (Abenakies,) on sources Saco River; destroyed by English in
PHILLIMEES, (Seminoles,) on or near the Suane River, Florida, in 1817.
PIANKASHAWS, 3,000 once, on the Wabash; in 1780, but 950; since driven
PIANKATANK, a tribe in Virginia when first settled; unlocated.
PINESHOW, (Sioux,) 150 in 1820, on the St. Peter's, 15 m. from its
PISHQUITPAH, 2,600 in 1815, N. side Columbia River, at Museleshell
Rapids, W. R.
POTOASH, 200 in 1820, coast Pacific, N. mouth Columbia, beyond
Clamoctomichs. POTTOWATOMOE, 1671, on Noquet i., L. Michigan ; 1681, at
POWHATANS, 32 tribes spread over Virginia when first discovered by the
PUANS, the Winnebagoes were so called by the French at one period.
(Nipmuks,) at a place of the same name, now Brookfield, Mass.
QUAPAW, 700 in 1820, on Arkansas r., opp. Little Rock ; reduced by sm.
pox in 1720. QUATHLAHPOHTLES, on S. W. side Columbia, above mouth
QUATOGHIE, (Wyandots,) once S. side L. Michigan ; Sold their lands to
Eng. in 1707
QUESADAS. See COOSADAS.
QUIEETSOS, on the Pacific ; 250 in 1820; N. Columbia r., next N. of the
QUINIILTS, on coast of the Pacific, N. of Columbia r.; 250 in 1820; next
QUINNECHART, coast Pacific, next N. Calasthocles, N. Columbia r. ; 2,000
QUINNIPISSA are those called Bayagoulas by the Chevalier Tonti.
QUODDIES, See PASSAMAQUODDIE.-3 Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. iii. 181.
REDGROUND, (Seminoles,) 100 in 1820, on Chattahoochie r, 12 m. above
REDKNIFE, so called from their copper knives; roam in the region of
RED-STICK, (Seminoles,) the Baton Rouge of the French.
RED-WING, (Sioux,) on Lake Pepin, under a chief of their name; 100 in
RICARRE, (Paunees,) before 1805, 10 large vill. on Missouri r. ; reduced
by small pox.
RIVER, (Mohegans,) S. of the Iroquois, down the N. side of Hudson r.
ROUND-HEADS, (Hurons,) E. side Lake Superior; 2,500 in 1764.
RYAWAS, on the Padouca fork of the Missouri; 900 in 1820.
SACHDAGUGHS, (Powhatans,) perhaps the true name of the Powhatans.
SANKHlKANS, the Delawares knew the Mohawks by that name.
SANTEES, a small tribe in N. Carolina in 1701, on a river perpetuating
SAPONIES,s (Wanamies,) Sapona River, Carolina, in 1700; joined
SATANAS, a name, it is said, given the Shawanees by the Iroquois.
SAUKE, or SAC, united with Fox before 1805 ; then on Mississ., above
SAUTEURS, or FALL INDIANS of the French, about the falls of St. Marv.
SAVANNAHS, so called from the river, or the river from them ; perhaps
SCATTAKOOKS, upper part of Troy, N. Y.; went from New England about
SEMINOLES have been established in Florida a hundred years.
SENECAS, one of the Five Nations; "ranged many thousand miles" in 1700.
SEPONES, in Virginia in 1775, but a remnant. See SAPONIES.
SERRANNA, (Savannahs ?) in Georgia; nearly destroyed by the Westoes
SEWEES, a small tribe in N. Carolina, mentioned by Lawson in 1710.
SHALLALAH, 1,200 in 1816, on the Pacific, S. Columbia r. next the
SHANWAPPONE, 400 in 1820, on the heads Columbia of Cataract and and
SHAWANE, once over Ohio ; 1672, subdued by Iroquois ; 1,383 near St.
Louis in 1820
SHEASTUKLE, 900 in 1820, on the Pacific, S. Columbia r., next beyond the
SHINIKOOKS, a tribe of Long Island, about what is now South Hampton.
SHOSHONEE, 30,000 in 1820 on on plains N Missouri; at war
with the Blackfeet.
SHOTO, (Wappatoo,) 460 in 1820, on Columbia River, opposite mouth of
SICAUNIES, 1,000 in 1820, among the spurs of the Rocky Mountains, W. of
SIOUX, discovered by French, 1660; 33,000 in 1820, St. Peter's,
Mississ., and Misso.
SISSATONES, upper portions of Red r., of L. Winnipee and St. Peter's, in
SITIMACHA. See CHITIMICHA.
SITKA. en King George III. Islands, on the coast of the Pacific, about
lat. 57º N.
SIX NATIONS, (Iroquois.) Mohawk, Seneca, Onondaga, Oneida, Cayuga,
SKADDALS, On Cataract River, 25 m. N. of the Big Narrows ; 200 in 1820.
SKEETSOMISH, 2,000 in 1820, on a river of their name flowing into the
SKILLOOT, on Columbia River, from Sturgeon Island upward; 2,500 in 1820.
SKUNNEMOKE or TUCKAPAS, Vermillion River, La., 6 leagues W of N. Iberia.
SMOKSHOP, on Columbia r., at the mouth of the Labiche; 800 in 1820, in
SNAKE See ALIATANS, or SHOSHONEES
SOKOKIE, on Saco River, Maine, until 1725, when they withdrew to Canada.
SOKULK, on the Columbia, above mouth of Lewis's River; 2,400 in 1820.
SOURIQUOIS, (Mikmaks,) once so called by the early French.
SOUTIES, (Ottowas,) a band probably mistaken for a tribe by the French.
SOYENNOM, (Chopunnish,) on N. side E. fork of Lewis's River; 400 in
1820; W. R.
SPOKAIN, on sources Lewis's River, over a large tract of country, W.
SQUANNAROO, on Cataract r., below the Skaddals ; 120 in 1820 ; W. Rocky
STAETANS, on heads W Chien r., with the Knenavish; 400 in 1805; resemble
STOCKBRIDGE, NEW, (Mohegans and Iroquois,) collected in N.Y., 1786; 400
STOCKBRIDGE, Mass., (Mohegans,) settled there in 1734; went to Oneida in
ST. JOHN'S, (Abenakies,) about 300 still remain on that river.
SUSQUEHANNOK, on W. shore of Md. in 1607 ; that river perpetuates their
SUSSEES, near sources of a branch of the Suskashawan, W. Rocky
SYMERONS, a numerous of race, on branch E. side of the Isthmus of
"people who go upon water;" on head waters of Frazier's River, La.
TAHAGROUDIE, about Detroit in 1723 ; probably Tsonothouans.
TAHUACANA, on River Brazos; 3 tribes; 180 m. up; 1,200 in 1820.
TALLAHASSE, (Seminoles,) 15 in 1820, between Oloklikana and Mikasaukie.
TALLEWHEANA, (Seminoles,) 210 in 1820, on E. side Flint River, near the
TAMARONAS, a tribe of the Illinois ; perhaps Peorias afterwards.
TAMATLES, (Seminoles,) 7 m. above the Ocheeses, and numbered 220 in
TARRATINES, E. of Pascataqua River; the Nipmuks so called the Abenakies.
TATTOWHEHALLYS, (Seminoles,) 130 in 1820; since scattered among other
TAUKAWAYS, on the sources of Trinity, Brazos, De Dios, and Colorado
TAWAKENOE, "Three Canes," W. side Brazos r., 200 m. W. of Nacogdoches,
TAwAWs, (Hurons,) on the Mawme in 1780, 18 in. from Lake Erie.
TELMOCRESSE, (Seminoles,) W. side Chattahoochee, 15 in. above fork ; 100
TENISAW, once on that river which flows into Mobile Bay ; went to Red r.
TETONS, (Sioux,) "vile miscreants," on Mississ., Misso., St. Peter's ;
TIONONTATIES, or DINONDADIES, a tribe of Hurons, or their general name.
TOCKWOOHS, one of the Six tribes on the Chesapeak in 1607.
TONICAS, 20 warriors in 1784, on Mississippi, opp. Point Coupe; once
TONKAHANS, a nation or tribe of Texans, said to be cannibals.
TONKAWA, 700 in 1820, erratic, about Bay St. Bernardo.
TOTEROS, on the mountains N. of the Sapones, in N. Carolina, in 1700.
TOTCSKEYS. See MORATOKS.
TOWACANNO, or TOWOASH, one of three tribes on the Brazos. See TAHUACANA.
TSONONTHOUANS, Hennepin so called the Senecas; by Cox, called
TUKABATCHE, on Tallapoosie River, 30 in. above Fort Alabama, in 1775.
TUNICA, (Mobilian,) on Red River, 90 in. above its mouth ; but 30 in
TUNXIS, (Mohegans,) once in Farmington, Conn. ; monument erected to
TUSHEPAHAS, and OOTLASHOOTS, 5,600 in 1820, on Clark's and Missouri
TUSCARORA, on Neus r., N. Carolina, till 1712 ; a few now in Lewiston,
TUTELOES. See MANGOAKS, or MANGOAGS.
TUTSEEWA, on a river W. Rocky Mts., supposed to be a branch of the
TWIGHTWEES, (Miamies,) in 1780, on the Great Miami; so called by the
once on Chattauchee r., 4 towns ; some went to Florida, some west.
UFALLAH, (Seminoles,) 670 in 1820, 12 m. above Fort Gaines, on
UGALJACHMUTZI, a tribe about Prince William's Sound, N. W. coast.
ULSEAH, on coast of the Pacific, S. Columbia, beyond the Neekcetoos; 150
UNALACHTGO, one of the three tribes once composing the Lenna Lenape.
UNAMIES, the head tribe of Lenna Lenape.
UNCHAGOOS, a tribe anciently on Long Island, New York.
UPSAROKA, (Minetare,) commonly called Crows.
30 m. up Columbia River, opposite the Cathlamats ; 400 in 1836
WABINGA, (Iroquois,) between W. branch of Delaware and Hudson r.
WACO, (Panis,) 800 in 1820, on Brazos River, 24 m. from its mouth.
WAHOWPUMS, on N. branch Columbia River, from Lapage r. upward ; 700 in
WAHPATONE, (Sioux,) rove in the country on N. W. side St. Peter's River.
WAHPACOOTA, (Sioux ?) in the country S. W. St. Peter's in 1805 ; never
WAMESITS, (Nipmuks,) once on Merrimac River, where Lowell, Mass., now
WAMPANOAG, perhaps the 3d nation in importance in N. E. when settled by
WAPPINGS, at and about Esopus in 1758 ; also across the Hudson to the
Minsi. WARANANCONGUINS, supposed to Lie the same as the Wappings.
WASHAWS, on Barrataria Island in 1680, considerable ; 1805, at Bay St.
Fosh, 5 only.
WATANONS, or WEAS. See OUIATINONS.
WATEREES, once on the river of that name in S. Carolina, but long since
WATEPANETO, On the Padouca fork of the Platte, near Rocky Mts. ; 900 in
WAWENOLS, (Abenakies,) once from Sagadahock to St. George River, in
WAXSAW, once in S. Carolina, 45 in. above Camden ; name still continues.
WEAS, or WAAS, (Kikapoos.) See OUIATANONS.
WEKISA, (Semin.,( 250 in 1820, W. side Chattahoochee, 4 m. above the
WELcH, said to be on a southern branch of the Missouri.
WESTOES, in 1670, on Ashley and Edisto Rivers, in S. Carolina.
WETEPAHATO, with the Kiawas, in 70 lodges in 1805, Padouca fork of
WHEELPO, on Clark's River, from the mouth of the Lastaw; 2,500 in 1820;
WHIRIPOOLS, (Chikamaugas,) so called from the place of their residence.
WHITE, W. of Mississippi River; mentioned by many travellers.
WIGHCOMOCOS, one of the six tribes in Virginia in 1607, mentioned by
WILLEWAHS, (Chopunnish,) 501) in 1820, on Willewah r., which falls into
WINNERAGO, on S. side Lake Michigan until 1832; Ottagamics, &c.
WOLF, Loupe of the French; several nations had tribes su called.
WOKKON, 2 leagues from the Tuscaroras in 1701 ; long since extinct.
WOLLAWALLA, on Columbia r., from above Muscleshell Rapids, W. Rocky Mts.
WYANDOTS, (Hurons,) a great seat at Sandusky in 1780; warlike.
WYCOMES, on the Susquchannah in 16.18, with some Oneidas, 250.
WYNIAWS, a small tribe in N. Carolina in 1701.
YAMACRAW, at the bluff of their name in 1732,
near Savannah, about 140 men.
YAMASEE, S. border of S. Carolina; nearly destroyed in 1715 by English.
YAMPERACK, (Camanches,) 3 tribes about sources Brazos, del Norte, &c.;
YANKTONS, in the plane country adjacent to E. side of the Rocky
YATTASSEE, its Louisiana, 50 m. from Natchitoches, on a creek falling
into Red r.
YAZOOS, formerly upon the river of their name ; extinct in 1770.
YEAHTENTANEE, on banks St. Joseph's r., which flows into L. Michigan, in
YEHAH, above the rapids of the Columbia in 1820; 2,800, with some
YELRTPOO, (Chopunnish,) 250 in 1820, on Weancum r., under S. W.
YoulcoxE, on the Pacific, next N. of the mouth of Columbia River; 700 in
Native American Nations