- Lutuami, Hale in U.S. Expl. Exp., VI, 199, 569, 1846
(headwaters Klamath River and lake). Gallatin in Trans. Am. Eth.
Soc., II, pt. 1, c, 17, 77, 1848 (follows Hale). Latham, Nat.
Hist. Man, 325, 1850 (headwaters Clamet River). Berghaus (1851),
Physik. Atlas, map 17, 1852. Latham in Proc. Philolog. Soc. Lond.,
VI, 82, 1854. Latham in Trans. Philolog. Soc. Lond., 74, 1856.
Latham, Opuscula, 300, 310, 1860. Latham, El. Comp. Phil., 407,
- Luturim, Gallatin in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, III, 402,
1853 (misprint for Lutuami; based on Clamets language).
- Lutumani, Latham, Opuscula, 341, 1860 (misprint for Lutuami).
- Tlamatl, Hale in U.S. Expl. Exp., VI, 218, 569, 1846
(alternative of Lutuami). Berghaus (1851), Physik. Atlas, map
- Clamets, Hale in U.S. Expl. Exp., VI, 218, 569, 1846
(alternative of Lutuami).
- Klamath, Gatschet in Mag. Am. Hist., 164, 1877. Gatschet in
Beach. Ind. Misc., 439, 1877. Gatschet in Am. Antiq., 81-84,
1878 (general remarks upon family).
- Klamath, Keane, App. Stanford’s Comp. (Cent. and So. Am.),
460, 475, 1878 (a geographic group rather than a linguistic
family; includes, in addition to the Klamath proper or Lutuami,
the Yacons, Modocs, Copahs, Shastas, Palaiks, Wintoons, Eurocs,
Cahrocs, Lototens, Weeyots, Wishosks, Wallies, Tolewahs,
Patawats, Yukas, “and others between Eel River and Humboldt
Bay.” The list thus includes several distinct families).
Bancroft, Nat. Races, III, 565, 640, 1882 (includes Lutuami or
Klamath, Modoc and Copah, the latter belonging to the Copehan
- Klamath Indians of Southwestern Oregon, Gatschet in Cont,
N.A. Eth., II, pt. 1, XXXIII, 1890.
Derivation: From a Pit River word meaning “lake.”
The tribes of this family appear from time immemorial to have
occupied Little and Upper Klamath Lakes, Klamath Marsh, and Sprague
River, Oregon. Some of the Modoc have been removed to the Indian
Territory, where now reside; others are in Sprague River Valley.
The language is a homogeneous one and, according to Mr. Gatschet who
has made a special study of it, has no real dialects, the two
divisions of the family, Klamath and Modoc, speaking an almost
The Klamaths’ own name is É-ukshikni, “Klamath Lake people.” The
Modoc are termed by the Klamath Módokni, “Southern people.”
Population.—There were 769 Klamath
and Modoc on the Klamath Reservation in 1889. Since then they have
Indian Linguistic Families of America North of Mexico, 1891