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Grammar ~ Adjectives

 Native American Nations | Ottawa and Chippewa Indians of Michigan                   


     Adjectives take two forms, to agree with the animate or inanimate nouns t which they belong.
     Comparison of adjectives is made by other words: O-ne-zhe-she (inanimate o-ne-zhe-shin), good; Maw-maw-me (or ne-go-ne) o-ne-zhe (or -shin), better; Au-pe-tchi o-ne-zhe-she (or -shin), best. A fourth degree is sometimes used: Maw-mo-me o-ne-zhe-she (or -shin), very best.
     The words "Me-no" and "Maw-tchi" or "Mau-tchi," do not change when used with other words, and they are the most common adjectives in the Ottawa and Chippewa languages; they are used as adverbs, as well as adjectives.
     "Me-no," is equivalent to good, right, and well;
     "Man-tchi," is equivalent to bad, wicked, evil;

Such as

Me-no au-ne-ne, good man;
Me-no au-quay, good woman;
Me-no au-way-sin, good animal;
Me-no au-ky, good land;
Me-no waw-bo-yon, good blanket;
Me-no e-zhe-wa-be-sy, good behavior, or kind;
Me-no au-no-ky, he works well, or doing good business;
Me-nope-maw-de-sy, he is well;
Me-no au-yaw, he is getting well, or convalescent from sickness;
Me-no au-no-kaw-so-win, good utensil, or handy instrument;
Me-no wau-gaw-quat, good ax;
Me-no ke- zhi-gut, good day, or pleasant weather;
Me-no au-no-kaw-tchi-gon, good goods, or nice goods;
Me-noe-zhe-wa-be-sy, he or she is kind or good;
Me-no maw-tchaw maw-got, it goes well, etc.

The word "Mau-tchi" is equally useful; as,
Mau-tchi an-ne-ne, bad man;
Mau-tchi au-quay, bad woman;
Mau-tchi e-zhe-wa-be-sy, bad behavior, or wicked person;
Mau-tchi mau-ne-to, evil spirit, or the devil;
Mau-tchike-ge-to, wicked language, or profanity;
Mau-tchi wau-gaw-quat, bad ax;
Mau-tchi ke-zhwa, vulgar speaker;
Man-tchi no-din, bad wind; Mau-tchi
au-naw-quot, bad cloud;
Mau-tchi ke-zhe-got, bad day, or rough weather;
Mau-tchi wig-wom, bad house, or wicked house;
Mau-tchi au-no-ke-win, bad business, etc.

Another adjective equally comprehensive is Kwaw-notch:
Kwaw-notch au- ne-ne, well-behaved man;
Kwaw-notch au-quay, pretty woman;
Kwaw-notch au-no-ke-win, good business;
Kwaw-notch au-no-kaw-tchi-gon, nice goods;
Kwaw-notchi-won, pretty or nice (inanimate);
Kwaw-notchi-we, pretty (animate);
Au-pe-tchikwaw-notchi-we au-quay, very pretty woman.

The following illustrate the changes of form in adjectives for animate and inanimate:

Animate. Inanimate.

Me-no-e-zhe-wa-be-sy, Me-no-e-zhe-wa-bawt, Kind, mild.
Ke-no-sy, Ke-nwa, Long, tall.
Ke-zhe-we-sy, Ke-zhe-waw, Hard.
Mush-kaw-we-sy, Mush-kaw-waw, Strong.
Ke-zhe-kaw, or ke-zhe-be-so, Ke-zhe-be-ta, Swift, fleet.
Ko-se-gwan-ny, Ko-se-gwan, Heavy.
Maw-tchi-e-zhe-wa-be-sy, Maw-tchi-e-zhe-wa-bot, Bad.
Ma-tchaw-yaw-au-wish, Ma-tchaw-yaw-e-wish, Wicked.
We-saw-ge-sy, We-saw-gun, Bitter.
Wish-ko-be-sy, Wish-ko-bun, Sweet.
Sou-ge-sy, Sou-gun, Tough.
Se-we-sy, Se-won, Sour.
Maw-kaw-te-we-sy, Maw-kaw-te-waw Black.
Ozaw-we-sy, Ozaw-waw, Yellow.
Ozhaw-wash-ko-sy, Ozhaw-wash-kwaw, Green.
Mis-ko-sy, Mis-kwa, Red
We-bin-go-sy, We-bin-gwaw, Blue.
O-zaw won-so O-zaw won-day, Yellow color.
Maw-kaw-te won-so Maw-kaw-te won-day Black color.
Maw-kaw-te-au-ne-ne, black man Maw-kaw-te-mo-kok, Black box.
Mis-ko au-ne, red man Mis-ko wau-bo-yon, Red blanket.

It will be observed that the last one or two syllables of the adjective are dropped when in connection with a noun.


Ottawa and Chippewa verbs are changed in their conjugations, to indicate--

1st. Whether their subjects are animate, or inanimate;
2d. Whether their objects are animate, or inanimate;
3d. Whether they are transitive, or intransitive;
4th. Whether they are active, or passive, or reflective;
5th. Whether the expression is common, or emphatic.

     They also express by their forms all of the distinctions of mood and tense, person and number, found in the English, and form their participles, and are changed into verbal or participial nouns; and these modifications are for,
the most part regular in form.

I. Verbs with inanimate subjects correspond to English impersonal or neuter verbs, but are much more extensively used. They are usually formed by adding the impersonal pronoun, maw-got--it; as,

Animate Subject. Inanimate Subject

Sing-Au-nou-kee, he works. Au-nou-ke-maw-got, it works.
Ke-au-nou-ke, he worked. Ke-an-non-ke-maw-got, it worked.
Au-non-ke-wog, they work. Au-nou-ke-maw-go-toun, things work
Ke-au-nou-ke-wog, they worked. Ke-an-nou-ke-maw-go-toun, things worked.

Standing trees, as well as all living creatures and personified things, are regarded as animate.

II, III. The distinctions for animate and inanimate objects, and for transitive and intransitive, are illustrated by the following:

Singular--I kill, Thou killest, etc.
Intransitive. Transitive.
Pers. Animate Object Inanimate Object.
1 Ne-ne-taw-gay Ne-ne-saw Ne-ne-ton
2 Ke-ne-taw-gay Ke-ne-saw Ke-ne-toun
3 Ne-taw-gay O-ne-sawn, or son O-ne-toun

Plural--We kill, You kill, etc.
1 Ne-ne-taw-gay-me Ne-ne-saw-naw Ne-ne-tou-naw
2 Ke-ne-taw-gaym Ke-ne-saw-waw Ke-ne-tou-naw-waw
3 Ne-taw-gay-wog O-ne-saw-wawn or won O-ne-tou-naw-waw

Singular--I see, Thou seest, etc.
1 Ne-waub Ne-waub-maw Ne-waub-don, or dawn
2 Ke-waub Ke-waub-maw Ke-waub-don, or dawn
3 Wau-be O-waub-mon or mawn O-waub-don, or dawn

Plural--We see, You see, etc.
1 Ne-waub-me Ne-waub-maw-naw Ne-waub-daw-naw
2 Ke-wau-bem Ke-waub-maw-waw Ke-waub-daw-naw-wan
3 Wau-be-wog O-Waub-naw-won O-waub-daw-naw-wan

IV. What is denominated the reflective form of the verb, is where the subject and the object are the same person or thing; as, in English, He hates himself. The passive and reflective forms are illustrated in the verb,
To See, thus:

Passive. Reflective.

Ne-wob-me-go, I am seen. Ne-wau-baw-dis, I see myself.
Ke-wob-me-go, thou art seen. Ke-wau-baw-dis, thou seest thyself.
Wob-maw, he is seen. Wau-baw-de-so, he sees himself.
Ne-wob-me-go-me, we are seen, Ne-wau-baw-de-so-me, we see ourselves
Ko-wob-me-gom, you are seen. Ke-wan-baw-de-som, you see yourselves
Wob-maw-wag, they are seen. Wau-baw-de-so-wag, they see themselves

V. The emphatic form repeats the first part of the pronoun; as, Ne- waub, I see; Nin-ne-waub, I do see (literally, I myself see).


Common Form--I eat, etc. Emphatic Form--I do eat, etc.

1 Ne-we-sin Nin-ne-we-sin
2 Ke-we-sin Kin-ke-we-sin
3 We-se-ne Win-we-we-sin

Transitive--Animate Object

1 Ne-daw-mwaw Nin-ne-daw-mwaw
2 Ke-daw-mwaw Kin-ke-daw-mwaw
3 O-daw-mwaw Win-o-daw-mwaw

Transitive--Inanimate Object.

1 Ne-me-djin Nin-ne-me-djin
2 Ke-me-djin Kin-ke-me-djin
3 O-me-djin Win-o-me-djin

The object is frequently placed before the verb--always when in answer to a question. Thus, the answer to the question, What is he eating? would be, Ke-goon-yan o-daw-mwawn--Fish he is eating.

Nouns are formed from verbs by adding "win"; as, waub, to see, wau-be- win, sight; paw-pe, to laugh, paw-pe-win, laughter; au-no-ke, to work, au-no-ke-win, labor.

NOTE.--A verb susceptible of both the transitive and intransitive office, and of both animate and inanimate subjects, as for instance, the verb To Blow, may have no less than fifteen forms for the indicative present third person singular. The intransitive may be both animate and inanimate as to subject, and the former both common and emphatic; the transitive would have the same, multiplied by animate and inanimate objects; and the passive and reflective would each have inanimate, and common and emphatic animate--fifteen. Double these for the plural, and we have thirty forms; and that multiplied by the sixteen tenses of the indicative, potential and subjunctive moods gives 480 forms of third person. The first and second persons have the same, minus the inanimate subject, or 20 each for each
tense, making 640 more, or 1120 all together in those three moods. The imperative singular and plural, and the infinitive present and past, and the participles, add 25. Then there is the additional form for the first person plural treated under "Pronouns," running through all the sixteen tenses, common and emphatic, animate and inanimate and intransitive, 96 more--making the astonishing number of 1241 forms of a single verb!-- EDITOR.

Conjugation of the Verb To Be.

Indicative Mood

Pers. Singular. Plural.

Present Tense--I am, etc.
1 Ne-daw-yaw Ne-daw-yaw-me
2 Ke-daw-yaw Ke-daw-yaw-me
3 Aw-yaw Aw-yaw-waug or wog

Imperfect Tense--I was, etc.
1 Ne-ge-au-yaw Ne-ge-au-yaw-me
2 Ke-ge-au-yaw Ke-ge-au-yawm
3 Ke-au-yaw Ke-au-yaw-wog

Perfect Tense--I have been, etc.
1 Au-zhe-gwaw ne-ge-au-yaw Au-zhe-gwaw ne-ge-au-yaw-me
2 Au-zhe-gwaw ke-ge-au-yaw Au-zhe-gwaw ke-ge-au-yawm
3 Au-zhe-gwaw ke-au-yaw Au-zhe-gwaw ke-au-yaw-wog

Pluperfect Tense--I had been, etc.
1 Ne-ge-au-yaw-naw-baw Ne-ge-au-me-naw-baw
2 Ke-ge-au-yaw-naw-baw Ke-ge-au-me-naw-baw
3 Ke-au-yaw-baw Ke-au-yaw-baw-neg

Future Tense--I shall or will be, etc.
1 Ne-gaw-au-yaw Ne-gaw-au-yaw-me
2 Ke-gaw-au-yaw Ke-gaw-au-yawm
3 Taw-au-yaw Taw-au-yaw-wag

Potential Mood

Present Tense--I may or can be, etc.
1 Ko-maw ne-taw-au-yaw Ko-maw ne-taw-au-yaw-me
2 Ko-maw ke-taw-au-yaw Ko-maw ke-taw-au-yawm
3 Ko-maw tau-yaw Ko-maw taw-au-yo-wog

Imperfect Tense--I might be, etc.
1 Ko-maw ne-ge-au-yaw Ko-maw ne-ge-au-yaw-me
2 Ko-maw ke-ge-au-yaw Ko-maw ke-ge-au-yom
3 Ko-maw ke-au-yaw Ko-maw ke-au-yaw-wog

Perfect Tense--I may have been, etc.
1 Au-zhe-gwau ne-tau-ge-au-yaw Au-zhe-gwau ne-tau-ge-au-yaw-me
2 Au-zhe-gwau ke-tau-ge-au-yaw Au-zhe-gwau ke-tau-ge-au-yawm
3 Au-zhe-gwan tau-ge-au-yaw Au-zhe-gwau tau-ge-au-yaw-og

Pluperfect Tense--I might have been, etc.
1 Ko-maw au-yaw-yom-baw Ko maw au-yaw-wong-ge-baw
2 Ko-maw ke-au-yaw-yom-baw Ko-maw au-yaw-ye-go-baw
3 Ko-maw au-yaw-go-baw-nay Ko-maw au-yaw-wo-go-baw-nay

Subjunctive Mood

Present Tense--If I be, etc.
1 Tchish-pin au-yaw-yaw Tchish-pin au-yaw-wong
2 Tchish-pin au-yaw-yon Tchish-pin au-yaw-yeg
3 Tchish-pin au-yawd Tchish-pin au-yaw-wod

Imperfect Tense--If I were, etc,
1 Tchish-pin ke-au-yaw-yaw Tchish-pin ke-au-yaw-wong
2 Tchish-pin ke-au-yaw-yon Tchish-pin ke-au-yaw-yeg
3 Tchish-pin ke-au-yawd Tchish-pin ke-au-yaw-wod

Perfect Tense--If I have been, etc.
1 Tchish-pin au-zhe-gaw ke-au-yaw-yaw
2 Tchish-pin au-zhe-gaw ke-au-yaw-yon
3 Tchish-pin au-zhe-gwa ke-au-yawd Tchish-pin au-zhe-gwa ke-aw-yaw-wog
Tchish-pin au-zhe-gwa ke-au-yaw-yeg
Tchish-pin au-zhe-gwa ke-au-yaw-wod [The
syllable "gwa" is often omitted, merely saying, "au-zhe."].

Pluperfect Tense--If I had been, etc.

1 Au-zhe ke-au-yaw-yaw-baw Au-zhe ke-au-yaw-wong-o-baw
2 Au-zhe ke-au-yaw-yawm-baw Au-zhe ke-au-yaw-ye-go-baw
3 Au-zhe ke-au-yaw-paw Au-zhe ke-au-yaw-wau-paw

Future Tense--If I shall or will be, etc.

1 Tchish-pin we-au-yaw-yaw Tchish-pin we-au-yaw-wong
2 Tchish-pin we-au-yaw-yon Tchish-pin we-au-yaw-yeg
3 Tchish-pin we-au-yawd Tchish-pin we-au-yaw-wod

Imperative Mood

1 Be thou, Do you be.
2 Au-yawm Au-yawg

Infinitive Mood
To be, To have been.
Perfect--Au-zhe tchi-ke-au-yong

Being, Been, Having been.
Au-zhaw-yong Tchi-ge-au-yong Au-zhe-gwaw tchi-ge-au-yong

Synopsis of the Verb To See

I see, Ne-wob.
I saw, Ne-ge-wob.
I have seen, Au-zhe-gwaw ne-ge-wob.
I had seen, Ne-ge-wob-naw-baw
I shall see, Ne-gaw-wob.
I shall have seen, Au-zhe-ge-wob.
I may see, Ko-maw ne-taw-wob.
I might see, Ko-maw ne-ge-wob.
I may-have seen, Au-zhe-gwaw ne-taw-ge-wob.
I might have seen, Ko-maw wob-yawm-baw.
If I see, Tchish-pin wob-yon.
If I saw, Tchish-pin ke-wob-yon-baw.
If I have seen, Tchish-pin au-zhe-gwa wob-yon.
If I had seen, Tchish-pin ke-wob yon-baw.
If I shall see, Tchish-pin we-wob-yon.
If I shall have seen, Tchish-pin we-wob-yon-baw.
See thou, Wob-ben.
To see, Tchi-wob-bing.
To have seen, Tchi-ge-wob-bing.
Seeing, Au-wob-bing.
Having seen, Au-zhe-gwaw au-ge-wob-biog.
Having been seen, Au-ge-wob-bing-e-baw.
I am seen, Ne-wob-me-go.
I was seen, Ne-ge-wob-me-go;
I have been seen, Au-zhe ne-ge-wob-me-go.
I had been seen, Ne-ge-wob-me-go-naw-baw.
I shall be seen, Ne-gaw-wob-me-go.
I shall have been seen, She-gwa-we-wob-me-go-yon.
I may be seen, Ko-maw wob-me-go-yon.
I might be seen, Ko-maw ke-wob-me-go-yon.
I may have been seen, Ko-maw au-zhe ke-wob-me-go-yon.
I might have been seen, Ko-maw au-zhe ke-wob-me-go-yon-baw.
If I be seen, Tchish-pin wob-em-go-yon.
If I have been seen, Tchish-pin au-zhe ke-wob-me-go-yon.
If I had been seen, Tchish-pin ke-wob-me-go-yon-baw.
If I shall be seen, Tchish-pin we-wob-me-go-yon.
If I shall have been seen, Tchish-pin she-gwa-we-wob-me-go-yon.
I see myself, Ne-wau-baw-dis.
I saw myself, Ne-ge-wau-baw-dis.
I shall see myself, Ne-gaw-wau-baw-dis.
I may see myself, Ko-maw ne-daw-wau-baw-dis.
See thyself, Wau-baw-de-son.
To see thyself, Tchi-wob-on-di-song.

Minor Parts of Speech

Adverbs: When, au-pe, au-ne-nish; where, au-ne-pe, au-ne-zhaw; there, e-wo-te, au-zhe-we. [The significance of the double forms is not clear; and comparison, as with Adjectives, seems to be by different words.-- ED.]

Prepositions are few, and are oftener embraced in the form of the verb, as in the Latin. The most important are, pin-je, in; tchish-pin, or kish-pin, if. Po-taw-wen pin-je ke-zhap ke-ze-gun, make some fire in the stove; Tchish-pin maw-tchawt, if he go away. Or the same may be expressed, Po-taw-wen ke-zhap ke-ze-gun-ing ("ing" forming locative ease, with the preposition implied); and, Maw-yaw-tchaw-gwen (the latter form of verb expressing subjunctive mood). The employment of the preposition makes the expression more emphatic.

The most important Conjunctions are, haw-yea, gaw-ya, ka-ie, and; and ke-maw, or. [Three forms of "and" doubtless due to imperfect orthography.]

Interjections embrace, yaw! exclamation of danger; au-to-yo! surprise; a-te-way! disappointment; taw-wot-to! disgust; ke-yo-o! disgust (used only by females).

There is no Article; but the words, mendaw, that, and maw-baw, this, are often used before nouns as specifying terms, and are always emphatic. E-we is common for that, directed to things at a distance.

A peculiarity, of uncertain significance, is the termination, sh, or esh, employed in connection with the possessive case. It does not change the interpretation, and is perhaps an expression of familiarity, or intimate relationship. Illustration:

Ne-gwiss, my son; Ne-gwisa-esh, my son.
Ne-daw-niss, my daughter; Ne-daw-niss-esh, my daughter.
Ne-dib, my head; Ne-dib-awsh, my head.
Ne-wau-bo-yon, my blanket; Ne-wau bo-yon-esh, my blanket.
Ne-gwiss-og, my sons; Ne-gwiss-es-shog, my sons.
Ne-daw-niss-og, my daughters; Ne-daw-niss-es-shog, my daughters.

One, Pa-zhig.
Two, Nezh.
Three, Ness-we.
Four, Ne-win.
Five, Naw-non.
Six, Ne-go-twos-we.
Seven, Nezh-was-we.
Eight, Nish-shwas-we.
Nine, Shong-swe.
Ten, Me-toss-we.
Twenty, Nezh-to-naw.
Thirty, Ne-se-me-to-naw.
Forty, Ne-me-to-naw.
Fifty, Naw-ne-me-to-naw.
Sixty, Ne-go-twa-se-me-to-naw.
Seventy, Nezh-wo-se-me-to-naw.
Eighty, Nish-wo-se-me-to-naw.
Ninety, Shong-gaw-se-me-to-naw.
One hundred, Go-twok.

Father, Os-se-maw, pl. g.
Mother, O-gaw-shi-maw, pl. g.
Brother, We-kaw-ne-se-maw.
Sister, O-me-say-e-maw.
Grandfather, O-me-shaw-mes-e-maw.
Grandmother, O-ko-mes-se-maw.
Cousin, male, We-taw-wis-e-maw.
Cousin, female, We-ne-mo-shay-e-maw.
Uncle, O-me-shaw-may-e-maw.
Aunt, O-nou-shay-e-maw.
Boy, Que-we-zayns, pl. og.
Girl, Quay-zayns, pl. og.
Man, Au-ne-ne, pl. wog.
Woman, Au-quay, pl. wog.
Old man, Au-ke-wa-ze, pl. yog.
Old woman, Me-de-mo-yay, pl. yog.

Ae, yes. Kau, no.
Nau-go, now.
Ka-ge-te, truly so.
Kau-win, no (emphatic).
Au-zhon-daw, here.
Pe-nau! hark!
Ka-go, don't.
E-wo-te, there.
Pa-kau, stop.
Kaw-ga-go, none.
Ne-gon, before.

Aush-kwe-yong, behind.
Ne-se-wo-yaw-ing, between.
Pe-tchi-naw-go, yesterday.
Wau-bung, to-morrow.
Pe-tchi-nog, just now.
Wau-e-baw, soon.
Au-no-maw-yaw, lately.
Way-wib, quickly.
Au-gaw-won, hardly.
Naw-a-gotch, slowly.
Au-pe-tchi, very.
O-je-daw, purposely.
Kay-gaw, almost.
Saw-kou, for example.
Mou-zhawg, always.
Me-naw-gay-kaw! to be sure!
Ne-sawb, alike.
Kaw-maw-me-daw, can't.
Pin-dig, inside.
Pin-di-gayn, come in.

We-yaw, The Body.
Pe-nay-shen, Bird. (Pl. yog)
O-dib, Head.
Wing-ge-zee, Eagle.
O-te-gwan, Face.
Pe-nay-se, Hawk.
O-don, Mouth.
Mong, Loon.
Osh-ke-zheg, Eye.
Me-zhe-say, Turkey.
O-no-wau-e, Cheek.
She-sheb, Duck. (P. og; others an.)
Otch-awsh, Nose.
Kaw-yawshk, Gull.
O-daw-me-kon, Jaw.
Tchin-dees, Bluejay.
O-da-naw-naw, Tongue.
May-may, Woodcock.
We-bid, Tooth.
Pe-nay, Partridge.
We-ne-zes, Hair.
Au-dje-djawk, Crane.
O-kaw-tig, Forehead.
O-me-me, Pigeon.
O-maw-maw, Eyebrow.
Au-pe-tchi, Robin.
Kaw-gaw-ge, Palate.
Awn-dayg, Crow. (P. og; others an.)
O-kaw-gun, Neck.
Au-nawk, Thrasher.
O-do-daw-gun, Throat.
Paw-paw-say, Woodpecker.
O pe-kwawn, Back.
Ke-wo-nee, Prairie hen.
O-pe-gay-gun, Rib.
Maw-kwa, Bear.
O-me-gawt, Stomach.
Mooz, Moose.
O-naw-gish, Bowel.
Me-shay-wog, Elk.
Osh-kawt, Belly.
Maw-in-gawn, Wolf.
O-kwan, Liver.
Au-mick, Beaver.
O-kun, Bone.
Maw-boos, Rabbit.
O-nenj, Hand.
Pe-zhen, Lynx.
O-neek, Arm.
Au-ni-moosh, Dog.
O-dos-kwon, Elbow.
Au-ni-mouns, Puppy.
O-kawd, Leg.
Au-zhawshk, Muskrat.
O-ge-dig, Knee.
Wau-goosh, Fox. (P. og; others an.)
O bwom, Thigh.
Shaw-gway-she, Mink.
O-zeet, Foot.
A-se-bou, Raccoon.
O-don-dim, Heel.
Me-she-be-zhe, Panther. (eg; others wog, og, g.)
O-ge-tchi-zeet, Big toe.
She-gos-se, Weasel.
O-ge-tchi-nenj, Thumb.
Au-saw-naw-go, Squirrel.
Ke-gon, Fish.
Maw-ne-tons, insect. (Pl. yog)
Ke-gons (dim.), minnow.
O-jee, house fly. (Pl. sog)
Naw-me-gons, trout.
Me-ze-zawk, horse fly.
Maw-zhaw-me-gons, brook trout.
Au-mon, bumblebee.
Maw-may, sturgeon.
Au-moans (dim.), bee, hornet.
O-gaw, pickerel.
May-may-gwan, butterfly. (Pl. yog)
She-gwaw-meg, dog fish.
Au-kou-jeah, louse.
Au-saw-way, perch.
Paw-big, flea.
O-kay-yaw-wis, herring.
O-ze-gog, woodtick.
Au-she-gun, black bass.
A-naw-go, ant.
Au-de-kaw-meg, whitefish.
A-a-big, spider.
Ke-no-zhay, pike.
Saw-ge-may, mosquito.
Paw-zhe-toua, sheep head.
Mo-say, cut worm. (Pl. yog)
Maw-maw-bin, sucker.
O-quay, maggot.

Paw-gawn, nut; (dim. paw-gaw-nays, hazelnut or other small nut)
Au-zhaw-way-mish, pl. eg; beech tree.
Au-zhaw-way-min, pl. on; beech nut.
Me-te-gwaw-bawk, pl. og; hickory tree.
Me-gwaw-baw-ko paw-gon, pl. on;
hickory nut. Paw-gaw-naw-ko paw-gon, pl. on; walnut.
Me-she-me-naw-gaw-wosh, pl. eg; apple tree.
Me-she-min, pl. og; apple.
Shaw-bo-me-naw-gaw-wosh, pl. eg; gooseberry bush.
Shaw-bo-min, pl. og; gooseberry.
Paw-gay-saw-ne-mish, pl. eg; plum tree.
Paw-gay-son, pl. og; plum.
Aw-nib, pl. eg; elm.
Aw-doup, pl. eg; willow.
Shin-gwawk, pl. wog; pine.
Ke-zhek, pl. og; cedar.
Au-bo-yawk, pl. wog; ash.
We-aaw-gawk, pl. og; black ash.
Me-daw-min, pl. og; corn.
O-zaw-o-min, pl. og; yellow corn.
Mis-kou-min, pl. og; red raspberry.
Wau-be-mis-kou-min, pl. og; white raspberry.
Wau-kaw-tay-mis-kou-min, pl. eg; black raspberry.
AU-KEE; the world, the earth, land, country, soil.
Pay-maw-te-se-jeg au-king, the people of the world.
Taw-naw-ke-win, country or native land.
Ke-taw-kee-me-naw, our country. Maw-kaw-te au-kee, black
earth or soil. Me-daw-keem, my land.
Au-ke-won, soiled; also applied to rich
land. Ne-besh, water; ne-be-kaw, wet land.
Wau-bawsh-ko-kee, marsh land.
An-ke-kaw-daw-go-kee, tamarack swamp.
Ke-zhe-ke-kee, cedar swamp.
Au-tayyaw-ko-kee, swamp, swampy land.
Shen-gwaw-ko-kee, pine land.
Ne-gaw-we-kee, sand; ne-gaw-we-kaw, sandy.
Kong-ke-tchi-gaw-me, the ocean.
Ke-tchi-au-gaw-ming, across the ocean.
Se-be (pl. won), river; se-be-wens (dim). (pl. an.) brook.
Ke-te-gawn (pl. on), farm; ke-te-gaw-nes (dim.), garden.
Ke-te-gay we-ne-ne, (pl. wog), farmer.
Ke-zes, sun; te-bik-ke-zes, moon; au-nong (pl. wog), star.
Ke-zhe-gut, day; te-be-kut, night.
Ne-bin, summer; pe-boon, winter.
Ne-be-nong, last summer; me-no-pe-boon, pleasant winter.
Tau-gwan-gee, fall; me-nou-kaw-me, spring.
Au-won-se-me-nou-kaw-ming, year ago last spring.
Maw-tchi taw-gwan-ge, bad or unpleasant fall. No-din, wind; no-wau-yaw, the air.
No-de-naw-ne-mot, windy.
To-ke-sin, calm; ne-tche-wod, stormy.
Au-pe-tchi ne-tche-wod, very stormy.
Wig-wom, house; wig-wom-an, houses. Au-sin wig-worn, stone house.
Au-naw-me-a-we-gaw-mig, a church.
Te-baw-ko-we-ga we-gaw-mig, a court house.

Me-no-say, handy. Me-no-sayg, that which is handy.
Au-no-ke, work. A-no-ket, he that is working.
Wo-be, he sees. Wau-yaw-bet, he that sees.
Pe-mo-say, he walks. Pe-mo-sayt, he that is walking.
Pe-me-bot-to, he runs. Pe-me-bot-tot, he that runs.

Get him, nawzh. Get it, naw-din.
Help him, naw-daw-maw. Help it, naw-daw-maw-don.
Call him, naw-doum. Ask for it, naw-don-don.
Go to him, naw-zhe-kow. Go to it, naw-zhe-kon.
Meet him, naw-kwesh-kow. Meet it, naw-kwesh-kon.

Ne-dje-mon, my boat. Ne-dje-may, I paddle.
Ne-dje-bawm, my soul. Ne-do-ge-mom, my master.
Ne-gwes, my son. Ne-daw-nes, my daughter.
Ne-taw-wes, my cousin. Ne-kaw-nes, my brother.
Ne-daw-kim, my land. Ne-ne-tehaw-nes, my child.

He sleeps, ne-baw. He is dead, ne-bou.
He is sleepy, au-kon-gwa-she. He died, ke-ne-bou.
He is white, wau-besh-ke-zee. He is afraid, sa-ge-ze.
He is lonely, aush-ken-dom. He is lazy, ke-te-mesk-ke.
He is killed, nes-saw. He is well, me-no-pe-maw-de-ze.

Ne-tawn, first. Ne-tawn ke-taw-gwe-shin, he came first.
Ne-gon, before. Ne-gon-ne, he goes before.
Au-ko-zee, sick. Au-ko-zi-we-gaw-mig, hospital.
Au-gaw-saw, small. O-gaw-sawg o-naw-gun pe-ton, bring small
Au-gaw-won, scarcely. Au-gaw-won ne-wob, I scarcely see.

Once, ne-go-ting. Only once, ne-go-ting a-taw.
Not there, ne-go-tchi. Look elsewhere, ne-go-tchi ne-naw-bin.
Change, mesh-kwot. He is elsewhere, ne-go-tchi e-zhaw.
Full, mosh-ken. It is elsewhere, ne-go-tchi au-tay.
Fill it, mosh-ke-naw-don. Change it, mes-kwo-to-non.

Saw-kon, go out. Pe-saw-kon, come out.
Maw-tchawn, go away. Pe-maw-tchawn, come away.
Pe-to, to bring. Pe-ton, fetch it.
Ash-kom, more and more. Nos, my father.
Ash-kom so-ge-po, more and more snow. Kos, your father.
Ash-kom ke-me-wau, more and more rain. O-sawn, his father.
Ash-kom ke-zhaw-tay, hotter and hotter. Ne-gaw-she, my mother.
Ash-kom ke-se-naw, colder and colder. Ke-gaw-she, your mother.
E-ke-to, saying. E-ke-ton, say it.
E-ke-to, he says. Ke-e-ke-to, he said.

Kay-go mon-daw e-ke-to-kay, do not say that.
E-wau, he says [the same as e-ke-to, but used only in third person and cannot be conjugated].
E-naw-bin, look; e-naw-bin au-zhon-daw, look here.
A-zhawd, going; au-ne-pe a-zhawd? where did he go? E-wo-te, there; me-sawe-wo-te au-daw-yon, there is your home.
Au-zhe-me, there; au-zhe-me au-ton, set it there.
Au-ne-me-kee, thunder; au-ne-me-ke-kaw, it thundered.
Awsh-kon-tay, fire; awsh-kon-tay o-zhe-ton, make some fire.
On-je-gaw, leaked; on-je-gaw tchi-mon, the boat leaked.
Kaw-ke-naw, all; kaw-ke-nawke-ge-way-wog, all gone home. Ke-wen, go home. [This verb always implies home, but the emphatic expression is ke-wen en-daw-yawn.]
Son-gon (inanimate), son-ge-ze (animate), tough.
Se-gwan, spring; se-gwa-nong, last spring (Chippewa dialect).
Me-gwetch, thanks; me-gwe-tchi-me-au, he is thanked.
Taw-kwo, short; on-sawm taw-kwo, too short.
Ke-me-no-pe-maw-tisnaw? Are you well? Ae, ne-me-no-pe-maw-tis. Yes, I am well. Ke-taw-kos naw?
Are you sick? Kau-win ne-taw-ko-si-sy. No, I am not sick.
Au-ne-pish kose-zhat? Where did your father go? O-day-naw-wing ezhaw. He is gone to town.
Ke-ge-we-sin naw? Have you eaten? Ae, ne-ge-aush-kwaw-we-sin. Yes, I have done eating.
Ke-baw-kaw-tay naw? Are you hungry? Kaw-win, ne-baw-kaw-tay-sy.
No, I am not hungry.
Pe-mo-say-win, walking (noun); ne-pe-mo-say, I walk. Aum-bay paw-baw-mo-say-taw, let us go walking.
Ne-ge-paw-baw-mo-say, I have been walking.
Ne-ge-paw-baw-mish-kaw, I have been boat riding. Aum-baypaw-baw-mish-kaw-daw, let us go boat riding.
Maw-tchawn, go on, or go away.
Maw-tchawn we-wib, go on quickly. Ke-maw-tchaw-wog, they have gone.
Aum-bay maw-tchaw-taw, let us go. Wan-saw e-zhaw, he is gone far away.
We-kau-de-win, a feast; we-koum, I invite him (to a feast). We-kau-maw-wog, they are invited (to a feast).
Maw-zhe-aw, overpowered; maw-zhe-twaw, victorious.
Mou-dje-ge-ze-win, or, me-naw-wo-ze-win, rejoicing.
Mou-dje-ge-ze, or, me-naw-wo-ze, he rejoices.
Au-no-maw-yaw ke-daw-gwe-shin, he came lately.
Au-pe-tchi ke-zhaw-tay, it is very hot
Ke-tchi no-din, it is blowing hard.
Paw-ze-gwin we-wib, get up quickly.
Me-no e-naw-kaw-me-got, good news. Me-no e-naw-kaw-me-got naw? Is it good news?
She-kaw-gongne-de-zhaw-me, we are going to Chicago. She-kaw-gong on-je-baw, he came from Chicago
Saw-naw-got, difficult to overcome.
Saw-naw-ge-ze, he is in difficulty. Saw-naw-ge-ze-wog, they are in difficulty.
Sa-ge-ze, he is frightened; sa-ge-ze-win, fright.
Ke-gus-kaw-naw-baw-gwe naw? Are you thirsty? Au-pe-tchi ne-gus-kaw-naw-gwe. I am very thirsty.
Me-naw au-we, give him drink. Ke-bish me-naw, give him water to drink.
O-daw-kim o-ge-au-taw-wen, he sold his land.
O-da paw-gaw-awn, the heart beats. O-dame-tchaw-ne, he has a big heart
Ke-ne-se-to-tom naw? Do you understand?
Ke-ne-se-to-tow naw? Do you understand me?
Kau-win, ke-ne-se to-tos-no. No, I do not understand you.
Ke-no-dom naw? Do you hear? Ae, ne-no-doin. Yes, I hear.
Ke-pe-sen-dom naw? Do you listen? Ke-maw-ne-say naw? Are you chopping?
Maw-tchi e-naw-kaw-me-got naw? Is it bad news?
We-go-nash wau-au-yaw mon? What do you want?
Au-nish au-pe-daw-taw-gwe-she non? When did you come?
Au-ne-pesh a-zhaw yon? Where are you going?
Au-ne-pesh wen-dje-baw yon? Where are you from?
Au-ne-dosh wau-e-ke-to yon? What shall you say?
Au-nish mon-daw e-naw-gen deg? What is the price?
Maw-ne-say, he chops; ma-ne-sayt, he that chops.
Ne-bwa-kaw, wise; ne-bwa-kawt, he that is wise.
Na-bwa-kaw-tchig, they that are wise.
Wa-zhe-tou-tchig awsh-kou-te, they that make fire.

O-zhe-tou aush-ko-tay pin-je ke-zhaw-be-ke-se-gun, Make fire in the stove.
Wen-daw-mow way-naw-paw-nod au-zhon-daw, Tell him the cheap place is here.
Wen-daw-mow e-naw-kaw-me-gok, tell him the news.
Taw-bes-kaw-be. Taw-be-e-shaw au-zhon-daw. He will come back. He will come here.
On-je-baw. Wow-kwing on-je-baw. Coming from. He comes from heaven.

Nau-go, now; nau-go a-ge-zhe-gok, to-day.
Te-besh-kou, same, even; ta-te-besh-kon, even with the other.
To-dawn mon-daw e-ne-taw, do that as I tell you.
Pe-sen-dow, listen to him;
pe-sen-do-we-shin, listen to me.

Me-saw-wett-dje-gay. Me-saw-me-dje-gay-win. He covets. Coveting.
E-zhaw-yon gaw-ya ne-ne-gaw e-zhaw. If you will go and also I will go.
O-je-daw ne-ge-to-tem tchi-baw-ping. Purposely I did it to make laughter.
Kaw-win ke-taw-gawsh-ke-to-se tchi-gaw-ke-so-taw-wod mau-ni-to, you cannot hide from God.
Maw-no-a-na-dong taw-e-zhe-tchi-gay, let him do what he thinks.
A-naw-bid. E-naw-bin a-naw-bid. In the way he looks. Do look in the way he looks.
Au-nish a-zhe-wa-bawk mon-daw? What is the matter with that?
Au-nish a-zhe-we-be-sit au-we? What is the matter with him?
Au-nish a-naw-tchi-moo-tawk? What did he tell you?
E-zhaw. Au-ne-pish kaw-e-zhawd? He went. Where did he go?
E-zhaw-wog. Harbor Springs ke-e-zhaw-wog. They went. They went to Harbor Springs.
Ne-daw-yaw-naw e-naw-ko-ne-ga-win. We have a rule, or, a law.
O-we-o-kwon o-ge-au-taw-son. His hat he pawned.
Ne-be-me-baw-to-naw-baw au-pe pen-ge-she-naw. I was running when I fell

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