- Pima, Latham, Nat. Hist. Man, 898, 1850 (cites three
languages from the Mithridates, viz, Pima proper, Opata, Eudeve).
Turner in Pac. R. R. Rep., III, pt. 3, 55, 1856 (Pima proper).
Latham in Trans. Philolog. Soc. Lond., 92, 1856 (contains Pima
proper, Opata, Eudeve, Papagos). Latham, Opuscula, 356, 1860.
Latham, El. Comp. Phil., 427, 1862 (includes Pima proper, Opata,
Eudeve, Papago, Ibequi, Hiaqui, Tubar, Tarahumara, Cora).
Gatschet in Mag. Am. Hist., 156, 1877 (includes Pima, Névome,
Pápago). Gatschet in Beach, Ind. Misc., 429, 1877 (defines area
and gives habitat).
Latham used the term Pima in 1850, citing under it three dialects
or languages. Subsequently, in 1856, he used the same term for one
of the five divisions into which he separates the languages of
Sonora and Sinaloa.
The same year Turner gave a brief account of
Pima as a distinct language, his remarks applying mainly to Pima
proper of the Gila River, Arizona. This tribe had been visited by
Emory and Johnston and also described by Bartlett. Turner refers to
a short vocabulary in the Mithridates, another of Dr. Coulter’s in
Royal Geological Society Journal, vol. XI, 1841, and a third by
Parry in Schoolcraft, Indian Tribes, vol. III, 1853. The short
vocabulary he himself published was collected by Lieut. Whipple.
Only a small portion of the territory occupied by this family is
included within the United States, the greater portion being in
Mexico where it extends to the Gulf of California. The family is
represented in the United States by three tribes, Pima alta,
Papago. The former have lived for at least two centuries with
the Maricopa on the Gila River about 160 miles from the mouth. The
Sobaipuri occupied the Santa Cruz and San Pedro Rivers, tributaries
of the Gila, but are no longer known. The Papago territory is much
more extensive and extends to the south across the border. In recent
times the two tribes have been separated, but the Pima territory as
shown upon the map was formerly continuous to the Gila River.
According to Buschmann, Gatschet, Brinton, and others the Pima
language is a northern branch of the Nahuatl, but this relationship
has yet to be demonstrated.75
Population.—Of the above tribes
the Pima and Papago only are within our boundaries. Their numbers
under the Pima Agency, Arizona,76
are Pima, 4,464; Papago, 5,163.
Indian Linguistic Families of America North of Mexico, 1891