- Skittagets, Gallatin in Trans. and Coll. Am. Eth. Soc., II,
pt. 1, c, 1848 (the equivalent of his Queen Charlotte’s Island
group, p. 77).
- Skittagetts, Berghaus, Physik. Atlas, map 17, 1852.
- Skidegattz, Gallatin in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, III, 403,
1853 (obvious typographical error; Queen Charlotte Island).
- Haidah, Scouler in Jour. Roy. Geog. Soc. Lond., XI, 224,
1841 (same as his Northern family; see below).
- Haidah, Latham, Nat. Hist. Man, 300, 1850 (Skittegats,
Massets, Kumshahas, Kyganie). Latham in Trans. Philolog. Soc.
Lond., 72, 1856 (includes Skittigats, Massetts, Kumshahas, and
Kyganie of Queen Charlotte’s Ids. and Prince of Wales
Archipelago). Latham, Opuscula, 339, 1860. Buschmann, Spuren der
aztek. Sprache, 673, 1859. Latham, El. Comp. Phil., 401, 1862
(as in 1856). Dall in Proc. Am. Ass’n. 269, 1869 (Queen
Charlotte’s Ids. and southern part of Alexander Archipelago).
Bancroft, Nat. Races, III, 564, 604, 1882.
- Hai-dai, Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, V, 489, 1855. Kane,
Wanderings of an Artist, app., 1859, (Work’s census, 1836-’41,
of northwest coast tribes, classified by language).
- Haida, Gibbs in Cont. N.A. Eth., I, 135, 1877. Tolmie and
Dawson, Comp. Vocabs., 15, 1884 (vocabs. of Kaigani Sept, Masset,
Skidegate, Kumshiwa dialects; also map showing distribution).
Dall in Proc. Am. Ass’n, 375, 1885 (mere mention of family).
- Hydahs, Keane, App. Stanford’s Comp. (Cent. and So. Am.),
460, 473, 1878 (enumerates Massets, Klue, Kiddan, Ninstance,
Skid-a-gate, Skid-a-gatees, Cum-she-was, Kaiganies, Tsimsheeans,
Nass, Skeenas, Sebasses, Hailtzas, Bellacoolas).
- Queen Charlotte’s Island, Gallatin in Trans. and Coll. Am.
Antiq. Soc., II, 15, 306, 1836 (no tribe indicated). Gallatin in
Trans. Am. Eth. Soc., II, pt. 1, 77, 1848 (based on Skittagete
language). Latham in Jour. Eth. Soc. Lond., 1, 154, 1848.
Latham, Opuscula, 349, 1860.
- Northern, Scouler in Jour. Roy. Geog. Soc. Lond., XI, 219,
1841 (includes Queen Charlotte’s Island and tribes on islands
and coast up to 60° N.L.; Haidas, Massettes, Skittegás,
Cumshawás). Prichard, Phys. Hist. Mankind, V, 433, 1847 (follows
- Kygáni, Dall in Proc. Am. Ass’n, 269, 1869 (Queen
Charlotte’s Ids. or Haidahs).
- Nootka, Bancroft, Nat. Races, III, 564, 1882 (contains Quane,
probably of present family; Quactoe, Saukaulutuck).
The vocabulary referred by Gallatin95
to “Queen Charlotte’s Islands” unquestionably belongs to the present
family. In addition to being a compound word and being objectionable
as a family name on account of its unwieldiness, the term is a
purely geographic one and is based upon no stated tribe; hence it is
not eligible for use in systematic nomenclature. As it appears in
the Archaeologia Americana it represents nothing but the locality
whence the vocabulary of an unknown tribe was received.
The family name to be considered as next in order of date is the
Northern (or Haidah) of Scouler, which appears in volume XI, Royal
Geographical Society, page 218, et seq. The term as employed by
Scouler is involved in much confusion, and it is somewhat difficult
to determine just what tribes the author intended to cover by the
designation. Reduced to its simplest form, the case stands as
follows: Scouler’s primary division of the Indians of the Northwest
was into two groups, the insular and the inland. The insular (and
coast tribes) were then subdivided into two families, viz, Northern
or Haidah family (for the terms are interchangeably used, as on page
224) and the Southern or Nootka-Columbian family. Under the Northern
or Haidah family the author classes all the Indian tribes in the
Russian territory, the Kolchians (Athapascas of Gallatin, 1836), the
Koloshes, Ugalentzes, and Tun Ghaase (the Koluscans of Gallatin,
1836); the Atnas (Salish of Gallatin, 1836); the Kenaians (Athapascas,
Gallatin, 1836); the Haidah tribes proper of Queen Charlotte Island,
and the Chimesyans.
It will appear at a glance that such a heterogeneous assemblage of
tribes, representing as they do several distinct stocks, can not
have been classed together on purely linguistic evidence. In point
of fact, Scouler’s remarkable classification seems to rest only in a
very slight degree upon a linguistic basis, if indeed it can be said
to have a linguistic basis at all. Consideration of “physical
character, manners, and customs” were clearly accorded such weight
by this author as to practically remove his Northern or Haidah
family from the list of linguistic stocks.
The next family name which was applied in this connection is the
Skittagets of Gallatin as above cited. This name is given to
designate a family on page c, volume II, of Transactions of the
Ethnological Society, 1848. In his subsequent list of vocabularies,
page 77, he changes his designation to Queen Charlotte Island,
placing under this family name the Skittagete tribe. His
presentation of the former name of Skittagets in his complete list
of families is, however, sufficiently formal to render it valid as a
family designation, and it is, therefore, retained for the tribes of
the Queen Charlotte Archipelago which have usually been called
From a comparison of the vocabularies of the Haida language with
others of the neighboring Koluschan family, Dr. Franz Boas is
inclined to consider that the two are genetically related. The two
languages possess a considerable number of words in common, but a
more thorough investigation is requisite for the settlement of the
question than has yet been given. Pending this the two families are
here treated separately.
The tribes of this family occupy Queen Charlotte Islands, Forrester
Island to the north of the latter, and the southeastern part of
Prince of Wales Island, the latter part having been ascertained by
the agents of the Tenth Census.96
The following is a list of the principal villages:
New Gold Harbor.
Population.—The population of the
Haida is 2,500, none of whom are at present under an agent.
Indian Linguistic Families of America North of Mexico, 1891