- Takilma, Gatschet in Mag. Am. Hist., 1882 (Lower Rogue
This name was proposed by Mr. Gatschet for a distinct language
spoken on the coast of Oregon about the lower Rogue River. Mr.
Dorsey obtained a vocabulary in 1884 which he has compared with
Athapascan, Kusan, Yakonan, and other languages spoken in the region
without finding any marked resemblances. The family is hence
admitted provisionally. The language appears to be spoken by but a
single tribe, although there is a manuscript vocabulary in the
Bureau of Ethnology exhibiting certain differences which may be
The Takilma formerly dwelt in villages along upper Rogue River,
Oregon, all the latter, with one exception, being on the south side,
from Illinois River on the southwest, to Deep Rock, which was nearer
the head of the stream. They are now included among the “Rogue River
Indians,” and they reside to the number of twenty-seven on the
Siletz Reservation, Tillamook County, Oregon, where Dorsey found
them in 1884.
- Tay-waugh, Lane (1854) in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, V. 689,
1855 (Pueblos of San Juan, Santa Clara, Pojuaque, Nambe. San Il
de Conso, and one Moqui pueblo). Keane, App. Stanford’s Comp.
(Cent, and So. Am.), 479, 1878.
- Taño, Powell in Rocky Mountain Presbyterian, Nov., 1878
(includes Sandia, Téwa, San Ildefonso, San Juan, Santa Clara,
Pojoaque, Nambé, Tesuque, Sinecú, Jemez, Taos, Picuri).
- Tegna, Keane, App. Stanford’s Comp. (Cent, and So. Am.),
479, 1878 (includes S. Juan, Sta. Clara, Pojuaque, Nambe,
Tesugue, S. Ildefonso, Haro).
- Téwan, Powell in Am. Nat., 605, Aug., 1880 (makes five
divisions: 1. Taño (Isleta, Isleta near El Paso, Sandía); 2.
Taos (Taos, Picuni); 3. Jemes (Jemes); 4. Tewa or Tehua (San
Ildefonso, San Juan, Pojoaque, Nambe, Tesuque, Santa Clara, and
one Moki pueblo); 5. Piro).
- E-nagh-magh, Lane (1854) in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, V,
689, 1855 (includes Taos, Vicuris, Zesuqua, Sandia, Ystete, and
two pueblos near El Paso, Texas). Keane, App. Stanford’s Comp.
(Cent, and So. Am.), 479, 1878 (follows Lane, but identifies
Texan pueblos with Lentis? and Socorro?).
- Picori, Keane, App. Stanford’s Comp. (Cent, and So. Am.),
479, 1878 (or Enaghmagh).
- Stock of Rio Grande Pueblos, Gatschet in U.S. Geog. Surv. W.
100th M., vii, 415, 1879.
- Rio Grande Pueblo, Gatschet in Mag. Am. Hist., 258, 1882.
Derivation: Probably from “taínin,” plural of tá-ide, “Indian,”
in the dialect of Isleta and Sandia (Gatschet).
In a letter97 from Wm.
Carr Lane to H. R. Schoolcraft, appear some remarks on the
affinities of the Pueblo languages, based in large part on hearsay
evidence. No vocabularies are given, nor does any real
classification appear to be attempted, though referring to such of
his remarks as apply in the present connection, Lane states that the
Indians of “Taos, Vicuris, Zesuqua, Sandia, and Ystete, and of two
pueblos of Texas, near El Paso, are said to speak the same language,
which I have heard called E-nagh-magh,” and that the Indians of “San
Juan, Santa Clara, Pojuaque, Nambe, San Il de Conso, and one Moqui
pueblo, all speak the same language, as it is said: this I have
heard called Tay-waugh.” The ambiguous nature of his reference to
these pueblos is apparent from the above quotation.
The names given by Lane as those he had “heard” applied to certain
groups of pueblos which “it is said” speak the same language, rest
on too slender a basis for serious consideration in a classificatory
Keane in the appendix to Stanford’s Compendium (Central and South
America), 1878, p. 479, presents the list given by Lane, correcting
his spelling in some cases and adding the name of the Tusayan pueblo
as Haro (Hano). He gives the group no formal family name, though
they are classed together as speaking “Tegua or Tay-waugh.”
Taño of Powell (1878), as quoted, appears to be the first name
formally given the family, and is therefore accepted. Recent
investigations of the dialect spoken at Taos and some of the other
pueblos of this group show a considerable body of words having
Shoshonean affinities, and it is by no means improbable that further
research will result in proving the radical relationship of these
languages to the Shoshonean family. The analysis of the language has
not yet, however, proceeded far enough to warrant a decided opinion.
The tribes of this family in the United States resided exclusively
upon the Rio Grande and its tributary valleys from about 33° to
about 36°. A small body of these people joined the Tusayan in
northern Arizona, as tradition avers to assist the latter against
attacks by the Apache—though it seems more probable that they fled
from the Rio Grande during the pueblo revolt of 1680—and remained to
found the permanent pueblo of Hano, the seventh pueblo of the group.
A smaller section of the family lived upon the Rio Grande in Mexico
and Texas, just over the New Mexico border.
Population.—The following pueblos
are included in the family, with a total population of about 3,237:
|Hano (of the Tusayan group)
|Isleta (New Mexico)
|Isleta (Texas) few
|Senecú (below El Paso) few
Indian Linguistic Families of America North of Mexico, 1891