- Tonkawa, Gatschet, Zwölf Sprachen aus dem Südwesten
Nordamerikas, 76, 1876 (vocabulary of about 300 words and some
sentences). Gatschet, Die Sprache der Tonkawas, in Zeitschrift
für Ethnologie, 64, 1877. Gatschet (1876), in Proc. Am.
Philosoph. Soc., XVI, 318, 1877.
Derivation: the full form is the Caddo or Wako term tonkawéya,
“they all stay together” (wéya, “all”).
After a careful examination of all the linguistic material available
for comparison, Mr. Gatschet has concluded that the language spoken
by the Tonkawa forms a distinct family.
Tónkawa were a migratory people and a colluvies gentium, whose
earliest habitat is unknown. Their first mention occurs in 1719; at
that time and ever since they roamed in the western and southern
parts of what is now Texas. About 1847 they were engaged as scouts
in the United States Army, and from 1860-’62 (?) were in the Indian
Territory; after the secession war till 1884 they lived in temporary
camps near Fort Griffin, Shackelford County, Texas, and in October,
1884, they removed to the Indian Territory (now on Oakland Reserve).
In 1884 there were seventy-eight individuals living; associated with
them were nineteen Lipan Apache, who had lived in their company for
many years, though in a separate camp. They have thirteen divisions
(partly totem-clans) and observe mother-right.
- Uchees, Gallatin in Trans. and Coll. Am. Antiq. Soc., II.,
95, 1836 (based upon the Uchees alone). Bancroft, Hist. U.S.,
III., 247, 1840. Gallatin in Trans. Am. Eth. Soc. II., pt. 1,
xcix, 77, 1848. Keane, App. Stanford’s Comp. (Cent. and So.
Am.), 472, 1878 (suggests that the language may have heen akin
- Utchees, Gallatin in Trans. and Coll. Am. Antiq. Soc., II.,
306, 1836. Gallatin in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, III., 401,
1853. Keane, App. Stanford’s Comp. (Cent. and So. Am.), 472,
- Utschies, Berghaus (1845), Physik. Atlas, map 17, 1848.
- Uché, Latham, Nat. Hist. Man, 338, 1850 (Coosa River).
Latham in Trans. Philolog. Soc. Lond., II., 31-50, 1846. Latham,
Opuscula, 293, 1860.
- Yuchi, Gatschet, Creek Mig. Legend, I, 17, 1884. Gatschet in
Science, 413, April 29, 1887.
The following is the account of this tribe given by Gallatin
(probably derived from Hawkins) in Archæologia Americana, page 95:
The original seats of the Uchees were east of Coosa and probably of
the Chatahoochee; and they consider themselves as the most ancient
inhabitants of the country. They may have been the same nation which
is called Apalaches in the accounts of De Soto’s expedition, and
their towns were till lately principally on Flint River.
The pristine homes of the
Yuchi are not now traceable with any degree of certainty. The
Yuchi are supposed to have been visited by De Soto during his
memorable march, and the town of Cofitachiqui chronicled by him, is
believed by many investigators to have stood at Silver Bluff, on the
left bank of the Savannah, about 25 miles below Augusta. If, as is
supposed by some authorities, Cofitachiqui was a Yuchi town, this
would locate the Yuchi in a section which, when first known to the
whites, was occupied by the Shawnee. Later the Yuchi appear to have
lived somewhat farther down the Savannah, on the eastern and also
the western side, as far as the Ogeechee River, and also upon tracts
above and below Augusta, Georgia. These tracts were claimed by them
as late as 1736.
In 1739 a portion of the Yuchi left their old seats and settled
among the Lower Creek on the Chatahoochee River; there they
established three colony villages in the neighborhood, and later on
a Yuchi settlement is mentioned on Lower Tallapoosa River, among the
Upper Creek.99 Filson100
gives a list of thirty Indian tribes and a statement concerning
Yuchi towns, which he must have obtained from a much earlier source:
“Uchees occupy four different places of residence—at the head of St.
John’s, the fork of St. Mary’s, the head of Cannouchee, and the head
of St. Tillis” (Satilla), etc.101
Population.—More than six hundred
Yuchi reside in northeastern Indian Territory, upon the Arkansas
River, where they are usually classed as Creek. Doubtless the latter
are to some extent intermarried with them, but the Yuchi are jealous
of their name and tenacious of their position as a tribe.
Indian Linguistic Families of America North of Mexico, 1891