- Wakash, Gallatin in Trans. and Coll. Am. Antiq. Soc., II,
15, 306, 1836 (of Nootka Sound; gives Jewitt’s vocab.). Gallatin
in Trans. Am. Eth. Soc., II, pt. 1, 77, 1848 (based on Newittee).
Berghaus (1851), Physik. Atlas, map 17, 1852. Gallatin in
Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, III, 402, 1853 (includes Newittee and
Nootka Sound). Latham in Trans. Philolog. Soc. Lond., 73, 1856
(of Quadra and Vancouver’s Island). Latham, Opuscula, 340, 1860.
Latham, El. Comp. Phil., 403, 1862 (Tlaoquatsh and Wakash
proper; Nutka and congeners also referred here).
- Wakash, Latham, Nat. Hist. Man, 301. 1850 (includes Naspatle,
proper Nutkans, Tlaoquatsh, Nittenat, Klasset, Klallems; the
last named is Salishan).
- Nootka-Columbian, Scouler in Jour. Roy. Geog. Soc., XI, 221,
1841 (includes Quadra and Vancouver Island, Haeeltzuk,
Billechoola, Tlaoquatch, Kawitchen, Noosdalum, Squallyamish,
Cheenooks). Prichard, Phys. Hist. Mankind, V, 435, 1847 (follows
Scouler). Latham in Jour. Eth. Soc. Lond., I, 162, 1848 (remarks
upon Scouler’s group of this name). Latham, Opuscula, 257, 1860
- Nootka, Hale in U.S. Expl. Exp., VI, 220, 569, 1846
(proposes family to include tribes of Vancouver Island and
tribes on south side of Fuca Strait).
- Nutka, Buschmann, Neu-Mexico, 329, 1858.
- Nootka, Gatschet in Mag. Am. Hist., 170, 1877 (mentions only
Makah, and Classet tribes of Cape Flattery). Gatschet in Beach,
Ind. Misc., 446. 1877.
- Nootkahs, Keane, App. Stanford’s Comp. (Cent. and So. Am.),
473, 1878 (includes Muchlahts, Nitinahts, Ohyahts, Manosahts,
and Quoquoulths of present family, together with a number of
- Nootka, Bancroft, Nat. Races, III, 564, 607, 1882 (a
heterogeneous group, largely Salishan, with Wakashan,
Skittagetan, and other families represented).
- Straits of Fuca, Gallatin in Trans. and Coll. Am. Antiq.
Soc., II, 134, 306, 1836 (vocabulary of, referred here with
doubt; considered distinct by Gallatin).
- Southern, Scouler in Jour. Roy. Geog. Soc., XI, 224, 1841
(same as his Noctka-Columbian above).
- Insular, Scouler ibid. (same as his Nootka-Columbian above).
- Haeltzuk, Latham in Jour. Eth. Soc. Lond., I, 155, 1848
(cities Tolmie’s vocab. Spoken from 50°30' to 53°30' N.L.).
Latham, Opuscula, 251, 1860 (the same).
- Haeeltsuk and Hailtsa, Latham, Nat. Hist. Man, 300, 1850
(includes Hyshalla, Hyhysh, Esleytuk, Weekenoch, Nalatsenoch,
Quagheuil, Tlatla-Shequilla, Lequeeltoch).
- Hailtsa, Latham in Trans. Philolog. Soc. Lond., 72, 1856.
Buschmann, Neu-Mexico, 322, 1858. Latham, Opuscula, 339, 1860.
Latham, El. Comp. Phil., 401, 1862 (includes coast dialects
between Hawkesbury Island, Broughton’s Archipelago, and northern
part of Vancouver Island).
- Ha-eelb-zuk, Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, V, 487, 1855. Kane,
Wand. of an Artist, app., 1859 (or Ballabola; a census of N.W.
tribes classified by language).
- Ha-ilt´-zukh, Dall, after Gibbs, in Cont. N.A. Eth., I, 144,
1877 (vocabularies of Bel-bella of Milbank Sound and of Kwákiutl’).
- Nass, Gallatin in Trans. Am. Eth. Soc., II, pt 1, c, 1848.
- Naass, Gallatin in Trans. Am. Eth. Soc., II, pt. 1, 77, 1848
(includes Hailstla, Haceltzuk, Billechola, Chimeysan). Gallatin
in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, III, 402, 1853 (includes Huitsla).
- Nass, Bancroft, Nat. Races, III, 564, 606, 1882 (includes
Hailtza of present family).
- Aht, Sproat, Savage Life, app., 312, 1868 (name suggested
for family instead of Nootka-Columbian).
- Aht, Tolmie and Dawson, Comp. Vocabs., 50, 1884 (vocab. of
- Puget Sound Group, Keane, App. Stanford’s Comp. (Cent. and
So. Am.), 460, 474, 1878.
- Hydahs, Keane, App. Stanford’s Comp. (Cent. and So. Am.),
473, 1878 (includes Hailtzas of the present family).
- Kwakiool, Tolmie and Dawson, Comp. Vocabs., 27-48, 1884 (vocabs.
of Haishilla, Hailtzuk, Kwiha, Likwiltoh, Septs; also map
showing family domain).
- Kwa´kiutl, Boas in Petermann’s Mitteilungen, 130, 1887
(general account of family with list of tribes).
Waukash, waukash, is the Nootka word “good” “good.” When heard
by Cook at Friendly Cove, Nootka Sound, it was supposed to be the
name of the tribe.
Until recently the languages spoken by the Aht of the west coast of
Vancouver Island and the
Makah of Cape Flattery, congeneric tribes, and the Haeltzuk and
Kwakiutl peoples of the east coast of Vancouver Island and the
opposite mainland of British Columbia, have been regarded as
representing two distinct families. Recently Dr. Boas has made an
extended study of these languages, has collected excellent
vocabularies of the supposed families, and as a result of his study
it is now possible to unite them on the basis of radical affinity.
The main body of the vocabularies of the two languages is remarkably
distinct, though a considerable number of important words are shown
to be common to the two.
Dr. Boas, however, points out that in both languages suffixes only
are used in forming words, and a long list of these shows remarkable
The above family name was based upon a vocabulary of the Wakash
Indians, who, according to Gallatin, “inhabit the island on which
Nootka Sound is situated.” The short vocabulary given was collected
by Jewitt. Gallatin states103
that this language is the one “in that quarter, which, by various
vocabularies, is best known to us.” In 1848104
Gallatin repeats his Wakash family, and again gives the vocabulary
of Jewitt. There would thus seem to be no doubt of his intention to
give it formal rank as a family.
The term “Wakash” for this group of languages has since been
generally ignored, and in its place Nootka or Nootka-Columbian has
been adopted. “Nootka-Columbian” was employed by Scouler in 1841 for
a group of languages, extending from the mouth of Salmon River to
the south of the Columbia River, now known to belong to several
distinct families. “Nootka family” was also employed by Hale105
in 1846, who proposed the name for the tribes of Vancouver Island
and those along the south side of the Straits of Fuca.
The term “Nootka-Columbian” is strongly condemned by Sproat.106
For the group of related tribes on the west side of Vancouver Island
this author suggests Aht, “house, tribe, people,” as a much more
appropriate family appellation.
Though by no means as appropriate a designation as could be found,
it seems clear that for the so-called Wakash, Newittee, and other
allied languages usually assembled under the Nootka family, the term
Wakash of 1836 has priority and must be retained.
The tribes of the Aht division of this family are confined chiefly
to the west coast of Vancouver Island. They range to the north as
far as Cape Cook, the northern side of that cape being occupied by
Haeltzuk tribes, as was ascertained by Dr. Boas in 1886. On the
south they reached to a little above Sooke Inlet, that inlet being
in possession of the Soke, a
The neighborhood of Cape Flattery, Washington, is occupied by the
Makah, one of the Wakashan tribes, who probably wrested this outpost
of the family from the Salish (Clallam) who next adjoin them on
The boundaries of the Haeltzuk division of this family are laid down
nearly as they appear on Tolmie and Dawson’s linguistic map of 1884.
The west side of King Island and Cascade Inlet are said by Dr. Boas
to be inhabited by Haeltzuk tribes, and are colored accordingly.
Principal Aht Tribes
Population.—There are 457 Makah at the
Neah Bay Agency, Washington.107
The total population of the tribes of this family under the West
Coast Agency, British Columbia, is 3,160.108
The grand total for this division of the family is thus 3,617.
Principal Haeltzuk Tribes
Population.—There are 1,898 of
the Haeltzuk division of the family under the Kwawkewlth Agency,
British Columbia. Of the
Bellacoola (Salishan family) and Haeltzuk, of the present
family, there are 2,500 who are not under agents. No separate census
of the latter exists at present.
Indian Linguistic Families of America North of Mexico, 1891