- Yakones, Hale in U.S. Expl. Exp., VI, 198, 218, 1846 (or
Iakon, coast of Oregon). Buschmann, Spuren der aztek. Sprache,
- Iakon, Hale in U.S. Expl. Exp., VI, 218, 569, 1846 (or Lower
Killamuks). Buschmann, Spuren der aztek. Sprache, 612, 1859.
- Jacon, Gallatin in Trans. Am. Eth. Soc., II, pt. 1, c, 77,
- Jakon, Gallatin in Trans. Am. Eth. Soc., II, pt. 1, 17,
1848. Berghaus (1851), Physik. Atlas, map 17, 1852. Gallatin in
Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, III, 402, 1853 (language of Lower
Killamuks). Latham in Trans. Philolog. Soc. Lond., 78, 1856.
Latham, Opuscula, 340, 1860.
- Yakon, Latham, Nat. Hist. Man, 324, 1850. Gatschet, in Mag.
Am. Hist., 166, 1877. Gatschet in Beach, Ind. Misc., 441, 1877.
Bancroft, Nat. Races, III, 565, 640, 1882.
- Yákona, Gatschet in Mag. Am. Hist., 256, 1882.
- Southern Killamuks, Hale in U.S. Expl. Exp., VI, 218, 569,
1846 (or Yakones). Gallatin in Trans. Am. Eth. Soc., II, 17,
1848 (after Hale).
- Süd Killamuk, Berghaus (1851), Physik. Atlas, map 17, 1852.
- Sainstskla, Latham, Nat. Hist. Man, 325, 1850 (“south of the
Yakon, between the Umkwa and the sea”).
- Sayúskla, Gatschet in Mag. Am. Hist., 257, 1882 (on Lower
Umpqua, Sayúskla, and Smith Rivers).
- Killiwashat, Latham, Nat. Hist. Man, 325, 1850 (“mouth of
- Klamath, Keane, App. Stanford’s Comp. (Cent. and So. Am.),
475, 1878 (cited as including Yacons).
Derivation: From yakwina, signifying “spirit” (Everette).
The Yakwina was the leading tribe of this family. It must have been
of importance in early days, as it occupied fifty-six villages along
Yaquina River, from the site of Elk City down to the ocean. Only a
few survive, and they are with the Alsea on the Siletz Reservation,
Tillamook County, Oregon. They were classed by mistake with the
Tillamook or “Killamucks” by Lewis and Clarke. They are called by
Lewis and Clarke111
Youikcones and Youkone.112
The Alsea formerly dwelt in villages along both sides of Alsea
River, Oregon, and on the adjacent coast. They are now on the Siletz
Reservation, Oregon. Perhaps a few are on the Grande Ronde
The Siuslaw used to inhabit villages on the Siuslaw River, Oregon.
There may be a few pure Siuslaw on the Siletz Reservation, but Mr.
Dorsey did not see any of them. They are mentioned by Drew,113 who
includes them among the “Kat-la-wot-sett” bands. At that time, they
were still on the Siuslaw River. The Ku-itc or Lower Umpqua villages
were on both sides of the lower part of Umpqua River, Oregon, from
its mouth upward for about 30 miles. Above them were the Upper
Umpqua villages, of the Athapascan stock. A few members of the Ku-itc
still reside on the Siletz Reservation, Oregon.
This is a family based by Hale upon a single tribe, numbering six or
seven hundred, who live on the coast, north of the Nsietshawus, from
whom they differ merely in language. Hale calls the tribe Iakon or
Yakones or Southern Killamuks.
The Sayúsklan language has usually been assumed to be distinct from
all others, and the comments of Latham and others all tend in this
direction. Mr. Gatschet, as above quoted, finally classed it as a
distinct stock, at the same time finding certain strong coincidences
with the Yakonan family. Recently Mr. Dorsey has collected extensive
vocabularies of the Yakonan, Sayúskla, and Lower Umpqua languages
and finds unquestioned evidence of relationship.
The family consists of four primary divisions or tribes: Yakwina,
Alsea, Siuslaw, and Ku-itc or Lower Umpqua. Each one of these
comprised many villages, which were stretched along the western part
of Oregon on the rivers flowing into the Pacific, from the Yaquina
on the north down to and including the Umpqua River.
Alsea (on Alseya River).
Population.—The U.S. Census Bulletin
for 1890 mentions thirty-one tribes as resident on the Siletz
Reservation with a combined population of 571. How many Yakwina are
among this number is not known. The breaking down of tribal
distinctions by reason of the extensive intermarriage of the several
tribes is given as the reason for the failure to give a census by
Indian Linguistic Families of America North of Mexico, 1891